Research Papers: Heat Transfer in Manufacturing

Ultra Fast Cooling and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Satya V. Ravikumar

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, India

Ravi Ranjan, Shiv Brat Singh

Department of Metallurgical
Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, India

Surjya K. Pal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, India

Sudipto Chakraborty

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur 721302, India
e-mail: sc@che.iitkgp.ernet.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received March 29, 2012; final manuscript received August 8, 2013; published online November 28, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Wei Tong.

J. Heat Transfer 136(3), 032101 (Nov 28, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1136; doi: 10.1115/1.4025638 History: Received March 29, 2012; Revised August 08, 2013

The objective of this work is to study about the ultrafast cooling of a hot static 6 mm thick steel plate (AISI-1020) by air assisted spray cooling. The study covers the effect of air flow rate and the water impingement density on the cooling rate. The initial temperature of the plate, before the cooling starts, is kept at 900 °C. The spray was produced from a full cone high mass flux and low turn down ratio air atomizer at a fixed nozzle to plate distance. The cooling rate shows that low turn down ratio air atomized spray can generate ultra fast cooling (UFC) rate for a 6 mm thick steel plate. After cooling, the tensile strength and hardness of the cooled steel plate were examined. The surface heat flux and surface temperature calculations have been performed by using INTEMP software. The result of this study could be applied in designing of fast cooling system especially for the run-out table cooling.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental set-up

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Fig. 2

The variation of droplet diameter with air flow rate

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Fig. 3

Computational domain of the steel plate for INTEMP

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Fig. 4

Sketch of tensile specimen (ASTME-8; Table 3)

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Fig. 5

The variation of local spray density at constant water flow rate of 6.67 × 10−5 m3/s

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Fig. 6

The variation of local spray density at constant air flow rate of 40 N m3/h

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Fig. 7

The variation of average water impingement density with air and water flow rates

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Fig. 8

Variation of temperature at different locations during atomized spray cooling

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Fig. 9

Photograph taken during experimentation

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Fig. 10

Variation of surface heat flux with time as calculated using INTEMP

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Fig. 11

Variation of surface temperature with time

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Fig. 12

Variation of surface heat flux with water flow rate (Fw)/impingement density (Id)

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Fig. 13

Variation of surface heat flux with air flow rate (Fw = 6.67 × 10−5 m3/s)

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Fig. 14

Variation of average heat flux with water flow rate

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Fig. 15

Cooling rate versus water flow rate at different air flow rates

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Fig. 16

Optical micrographs of the (a) as-received plate and (b), (c), and (d) after atomized spray cooling at a cooling rate of 130 °C/s, 145 °C/s, and 160 °C/s, respectively

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Fig. 17

X-ray diffraction pattern of the steels

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Fig. 18

Effect of cooling rate on the hardness of atomized spray cooled material

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Fig. 19

Effect of cooling rate on the tensile strength of atomized spray cooled material

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Fig. 20

Comparative study with previous data

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Fig. 21

Validation of estimated temperatures with the measured



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