Research Papers: Conduction

A Fundamental Study on the Heat Partition Ratio of Vehicle Disk Brakes

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas Loizou

e-mail: loizou2@gmail.com

Andrew J. Day

School of Engineering,
Design and Technology,
University of Bradford,
Bradford BD7 1DP, UK

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 14, 2012; final manuscript received June 10, 2013; published online October 14, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Robert D. Tzou.

J. Heat Transfer 135(12), 121302 (Oct 14, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1610; doi: 10.1115/1.4024840 History: Received November 14, 2012; Revised June 10, 2013

The interface tribolayer (ITL) in an automotive brake friction pair is a layer of material created from transfer films, wear particles, and surface transformations between the rotor and stator. Its presence in a brake friction interface has been proven, e.g., by the existence of a temperature “jump” across the friction interface. In this paper, two 1D static transient heat transfer models have been used to investigate the ITL behavior and obtain an equivalent thermal conductance value which will reduce computational requirements and software restrictions. The approach is developed into a more realistic 2D coupled temperature–displacement model using commercial finite element analysis (FEA) software (abaqus) that utilizes the contact pressure, real contact area, and the ITL equivalent thermal conductance to estimate the effective thermal conductance at the friction interface. Subsequently, the effective thermal conductance relationship is combined with the 2-D coupled temperature–displacement model to provide a new method of heat partition prediction in brake friction pairs where heat partition is neither uniform nor constant with time.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Blok, H., 1937, “Theoretical Study of Temperature Rise at Surfaces of Actual Contact Under Oiliness Lubricating Conditions,” Proceedings of the General Discussion on Lubrication and Lubricants, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, pp. 222–235.
Jaeger, J. C., 1942, “Moving Sources of Heat and the Temperature at Sliding Contacts,” Proc. R. Soc. N. S. W., 76, pp. 203–224. Available at http://www.ewp.rpi.edu/hartford/~ernesto/F2007/FWM/Papers/Jaeger1.pdf.
Newcomb, T. P., 1959, “Transient Temperatures Attained in Disc Brakes,” Br. J. Appl. Phys., 10, pp. 339–340. [CrossRef]
Majcherczak, D., Dufrenoy, P., and Nait-Abdelaziz, M., 2005, “Third Body Influence on Thermal Friction Contact Problems: Application to Braking,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(1), pp. 89–95. [CrossRef]
Limpert, R., 1999, Brake Design and Safety, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
Qi, H. S., and Day, A. J., 2007, “Investigation of Disc/Pad Interface Temperatures in Friction Braking,” Wear,262(5–6), pp. 505–513. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y. M., and Chen, S.-H., 2006, “Analytical Study of Design Parameters on Cooling Performance of a Brake Disk,” SAE World Congress, SAE International, Detroit.
Tirovic, M., and Voller, G. P., 2005, “Interface Pressure Distributions and Thermal Contact Resistance of a Bolted Joint,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 461(2060), pp. 2339–2354. [CrossRef]
Tudor, A., and Khonsari, M. M., 2006, “Analysis of Heat Partitioning in Wheel/Rail and Wheel/Brake Shoe Friction Contact: An Analytical Approach,” Tribol. Trans., 49(4), pp. 635–642. [CrossRef]
Choi, J.-H., and Lee, I., 2003, “Finite Element Analysis of Transient Thermoelastic Behaviors in Disk Brakes,” Wear, 257, pp. 47–58. [CrossRef]
Kim, D.-J., Lee, Y.-M., Park, J.-S., and Seok, C.-S., 2007, “Thermal Stress Analysis for a Disk Brake of Railway Vehicles With Consideration of the Pressure Distribution on a Frictional Surface,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 483–484, pp. 456–459. [CrossRef]
Blau, P. J., and Jolly, B. C., 2005, “Wear of Truck Brake Lining Materials Using Three Different Test Methods,” Wear, 259, pp. 1022–1030. [CrossRef]
Osterle, W., and Urban, I., 2006, “Third Body Formation on Brake Pads and Rotors,” Tribol. Int., 39(5), pp. 401–408. [CrossRef]
Uyyuru, R. K., Surappa, M. K., and Brusethaug, S., 2007, “Tribological Behavior of Al-Si-SiCp Composites/Automobile Brake Pad System Under Dry Sliding Conditions,” Tribol. Int., 40(2), pp. 365–373. [CrossRef]
Linck, V., Bayada, G., Baillet, L., Sassi, T., and Sabil, J., 2005, “Finite Element Analysis of a Contact With Friction Between an Elastic Body and a Thin Soft Layer,” ASME J. Tribol., 127(3), pp. 461–468. [CrossRef]
Day, A. J., 2012, “Friction and Friction Materials,” Braking of Road Vehicles 2012, A. J.Day and B. R.Shilton, eds., University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.
Osterle, W., and Urban, I., 2004, “Friction Layers and Friction Films on PMC Brake Pads,” Wear, 257(1–2), pp. 215–226. [CrossRef]
Söderberg, A., and Andersson, S., 2009, “Simulation of Wear and Contact Pressure Distribution at the Pad-to-Rotor Interface in a Disc Brake Using General Purpose Finite Element Analysis Software,” Wear, 267(12), pp. 2243–2251. [CrossRef]
Dufrenoy, P., 2004, “Two-/Three-Dimensional Hybrid Model of the Thermomechanical Behaviour of Disc Brakes,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., F J. Rail Rapid Transit, 218(1), pp. 17–30. [CrossRef]
Majcherczak, D., Dufrenoy, P., and Berthier, Y., 2007, “Tribological, Thermal and Mechanical Coupling Aspects of the Dry Sliding Contact,” Tribol. Int., 40(5), pp. 834–843. [CrossRef]
Holman, J. P., 1997, Heat Transfer, MCGraw-Hill, London.
Voller, G., Tirovic, M., Morris, R., and Gibbens, P., 2003, “Analysis of Automotive Disc Brake Cooling Characteristics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D (J. Automob. Eng.), 217(8), pp. 657–666. [CrossRef]
Day, A. J., and Newcomb, T. P., 1984, “The Dissipation of Frictional Energy From the Interface of an Annular Disc Brake,” Proc. Inst. Mech Eng., 198D(11), pp. 201–209. [CrossRef]
Abd-Rabou, M. M., and El-Sherbiny, M. G., 1998, “Thermo Elastic Study on Brake Pads Using FEA,” J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 45(5), pp. 709–719.
Marshall, P. H., 2008, “Brake Design Analysis,” Braking of Road Vehicles 2008, A. J.Day and B. R.Shilton, eds., University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.
Loizou, A., 2012, “Modelling and Simulation of Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena at the Friction Interface of a Disc Brake,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Bradford, UK.
Simulia, 2008, Abaqus Analysis User's Manual: 4.2.1 Abaqus/Standard Output Variable Identifiers, Abaqus HTML Documentation, Version 6.8, Dassault Systèmes.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Static models with (right) and without (left) ITL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperatures with ITL physically modeled and with equivalent thermal resistance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

2D coupled temperature–displacement model with frictional heating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Average contact pressure when f=1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Total thermal resistance at interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Contact pressure and thermal conductance relationship for experiment 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Pressure–conductance relationship for different contact areas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average nodal contact pressure with different thermal contact resistance values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Resulting temperatures for experiment 4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Average nodal contact pressures for explicit and implicit solutions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pad wear on leading edge due to higher contact pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Leading and trailing pad temperatures and (b) temperatures with different f values



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In