0
Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Observations of the Critical Heat Flux Process During Pool Boiling of FC-72

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Jung

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Daejeon 305-701, Korea
e-mail: dongwhy@kaist.ac.kr

S. J. Kim

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Daejeon 305-701, Korea
e-mail: sungjinkim@kaist.ac.kr

J. Kim

University of Maryland,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: kimjh@umd.edu

A movie of the heat flux and temperature distribution as the surface transitions though CHF can be viewed at http://heattransfer.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=1760213 on the ASME.org Digital Collection by clicking the tab “Supplemental Material.” Text files of the time-resolved local temperature and heat flux distributions at selected heat flux values from which the reader can rederive many of the results given below can be obtained by contacting the corresponding author.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received April 6, 2013; final manuscript received July 31, 2013; published online January 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Patrick E. Phelan.

J. Heat Transfer 136(4), 041501 (Jan 24, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-13-1189; doi: 10.1115/1.4025697 History: Received April 06, 2013; Revised July 31, 2013

Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the process by which pool-boiling critical heat flux (CHF) occurs using an IR camera to measure the local temperature and heat transfer coefficients on a heated silicon surface. The wetted area fraction (WF), the contact line length density (CLD), the frequency between dryout events, the lifetime of the dry patches, the speed of the advancing and receding contact lines, the dry patch size distribution on the surface, and the heat transfer from the liquid-covered areas were measured throughout the boiling curve. Quantitative analysis of this data at high heat flux and transition through CHF revealed that the boiling curve can simply be obtained by weighting the heat flux from the liquid-covered areas by WF. CHF mechanisms proposed in the literature were evaluated against the observations.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kutateladze, S. S., 1948, “On the Transition to Film Boiling Under Natural Convection,” Kotloturbostroenie, 3, pp. 10–12.
Zuber, N., 1959, “Hydrodynamic Aspects of Boiling Heat Transfer,” AEC Report No. AECU-4439, Physics and Mathematics.
Haramura, Y., and Katto, Y. A., 1983, “A New Hydrodynamic Model of Critical Heat Flux Applicable Widely to Both Pool and Forced Convection Boiling on Submerged Bodies in Saturated Liquids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26, pp. 389–399. [CrossRef]
Gaertner, R. F., and Westwater, J. W., 1960, “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer,” Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp, 56, pp. 39–48.
Kirby, D. B., and Westwater, J. W., 1965, “Bubble and Vapor Behavior on a Heated Horizontal Plate During Pool Boiling Near Burnout,” Chem. Eng. Prog. Symp, 61, pp. 238–248.
Bang, I. C., Chang, S. H., and Baek, W., 2005, “Visualization of a Principle Mechanism of Critical Heat Flux in Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48, pp. 5371–5385. [CrossRef]
Ono, A., and Sakashita, H., 2007, “Liquid–Vapor Structure Near Heating Surface at High Heat Flux in Subcooled Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50, pp. 3481–3489. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S., and Kim, M. H., 2012, “Visualization Study of Critical Heat Flux Mechanism on a Small and Horizontal Copper Heater,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 41, pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Theofanous, T. G., Dinh, T. N., Tu, J. P., and Dinh, A. T., 2002, “The Boiling Crisis Phenomenon Part I: Nucleation and Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26, pp. 775–792. [CrossRef]
Theofanous, T. G., Dinh, T. N., Tu, J. P., and Dinh, A. T., 2002, “The Boiling Crisis Phenomenon Part II: Dryout Dynamics and Burnout,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26, pp. 793–810. [CrossRef]
Gong, S., Ma, W., and Dinh, T.-N., 2011, “An Experimental Study of Rupture Dynamics of Evaporating Liquid Films on Different Heater Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54, pp. 1538–1547. [CrossRef]
Gong, S., Ma, W., and Dinh, T.-N., 2012, “Simulation and Validation of the Dynamics of Liquid Films Evaporating on Horizontal Heater Surfaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 48, pp. 486–494. [CrossRef]
Guan, C. K., Klausner, J. F., and Mei, R., 2011, “A New Mechanistic Model for Pool Boiling CHF on Horizontal Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54, pp. 3960–3969. [CrossRef]
Nishio, S., and Tanaka, H., 2004, “Visualization of Boiling Structures in High Heat-Flux Pool-Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 4559–4568. [CrossRef]
Wayner, P. C., Kao, Y. K., and LaCroix, L. V., 1976, “The Interline Heat Transfer Coefficient on an Evaporating Wetting Film,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19, pp. 487–492. [CrossRef]
Demiray, F., and Kim, J., 2004, “Microscale Heat Transfer Measurements During Pool Boiling of FC-72: Effect of Subcooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 3257–3268. [CrossRef]
Sefiane, K., Benielli, D., and Steinchen, A., 1998, “A New Mechanism for Pool Boiling Crisis, Recoil Instability and Contact Angle Influence,” Colloids Surf. A, 142, pp. 361–373. [CrossRef]
Nikolayev, V. S., and Beysens, D. A., 1999, “Boiling Crisis and Non-Equilibrium Drying Transition,” Europhys. Lett., 47(3), pp. 345–351. [CrossRef]
Kandilkar, S. G., 2001, “A Theoretical Model to Predict Pool Boiling CHF Incorporating Effects Contact Angle and Orientations,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123, pp. 1071–1079. [CrossRef]
Janecek, V., and Nikolayev, V. S., 2013, “Apparent-Contact-Angle Model at Partial Wetting and Evaporation: Impact of Surface Forces,” Phys. Rev. E, 87, p. 012404. [CrossRef]
Raj, R., Kunkelmann, C., Stephan, P., Plawsky, J., and Kim, J., 2012, “Contact Line Behavior for a Highly Wetting Fluid Under Superheated Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55, pp. 2664–2675. [CrossRef]
Ajaev, V. S., Gambaryan-Roisman, T., and Stephan, P., 2010, “Static and Dynamic Contact Angles of Evaporating Liquids on Heated Surfaces,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 342, pp. 550–558. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rednikov, A. Y., and Colinet, P., 2011, “Truncated Versus Extended Microfilms at a Vapor-Liquid Contact Line on a Heated Substrate,” Langmuir, 27, pp. 1758–1769. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chu, I.-C., No, H. C., and Song, C.-H., 2013, “Visualization of Boiling Structure and Critical Heat Flux Phenomenon for a Narrow Heating Surface in a Horizontal Pool of Saturated Water,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 62, pp. 142–152. [CrossRef]
Chung, H. J., and No, H. C., 2007, “A Nucleate Boiling Limitation Model for the Prediction of Pool Boiling CHF,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50, pp. 2944–2951. [CrossRef]
Gerardi, C., and Buongiorno, J., Hu, L.-W., and McKrell, T., 2011, “Infrared Thermometry Study of Nanofluid Pool Boiling Phenomena,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6, p. 232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gerardi, C., and Buongiorno, J., Hu, L.-W., and McKrell, T., 2010, “Study of Bubble Growth in Water Pool Boiling Through Synchronized, Infrared Thermometry and High-Speed Video,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(19–20), pp. 4185–4192. [CrossRef]
Golobic, I., Petkovsek, J., Baselj, M., Papez, A., and Kenning, D. B. R., 2009, “Experimental Determination of Transient Wall Temperature Distributions Close to Growing Vapor Bubbles,” Heat Mass Transfer, 45(7), pp. 857–866. [CrossRef]
Schweizer, N., and Stephan, P., 2009, “Experimental Study of Bubble Behavior and Local Heat Flux in Pool Boiling Under Variable Gravity Conditions,” Multiphase Sci. Technol., 21(4), pp. 329–350. [CrossRef]
Kim, T. H., Kommer, E., Dessiatoun, S., and Kim, J., 2011, “Measurement of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer Parameters Using Infrared Thermometry,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 40, pp. 56–67. [CrossRef]
Yaddanapuddi, N., and Kim, J., 2001, “Single Bubble Heat Transfer in Saturated Pool Boiling of FC-72,” Multiphase Sci. Technol., 12(3–4), pp. 47–63.
Moghaddam, S., and Kiger, K., 2009, “Physical Mechanisms of Heat Transfer During Single Bubble Nucleate Boiling of FC-72 Under Saturated Conditions—I. Experimental investigation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52, pp. 1284–1294. [CrossRef]
Stephan, P., and Hammer, J., 1994, “A New Model for Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer,” Warme und Stoffubertragung, 30, pp. 119–125. [CrossRef]
Rodgers, J. L., and Nicewander, W. A., 1988, “Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient,” Am. Stat., 42, pp. 59–66. [CrossRef]
Coursey, J. S., and Kim, J., 2008, “Nanofluid Boiling: The Effect of Surface Wettability,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29, pp. 1577–1585. [CrossRef]
Liaw, S. P., and Dhir, V. K., 1986, “Effect of Surface Wettability on Transition Boiling Heat Transfer From a Vertical Surface,” Proceedings of the 8th International Heat Transfer Conference, Vol. 4, pp. 2031–2036.
Chu, K.-H., Enright, R., and Wang, E. N., 2012, “Structured Surfaces for Enhanced Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 100, p. 241603. [CrossRef]
Kim, H., Park, Y., and Buongiorno, J., 2013, “Measurement of Wetted Area Fraction in Subcooled Pool Boiling of Water Using Infrared Thermometry,” Nuclear Eng. Design, 264, pp. 103–110. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Pool-boiling experimental facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Test heater construction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Example illustrating the algorithm to determine contact line location: (a) Heat flux and (b) Contact line location. The white line in (b) indicates the location of the contact line. The black and gray areas indicate the dry and wetted areas, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sketch of the microregion at the contact line

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The evolution of temperature and heat flux at q″ = 15.7 W/cm2 as the heater transitions through CHF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature and heat flux distribution at q″ = 15.7 W/cm2 for two successive frames

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Local temperature and heat flux from a typical point on the surface at q″ = 15.7 W/cm2 (P = 1 atm): (a) Local temperature and (b) local heat flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Sample IR images of boiling on a silicon heater at q″ = 15.7 W/cm2 (P = 1 atm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Boiling curves from experiments at saturation temperature (P = 1 atm) obtained as the heat flux was increased

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for validation (not to scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Contact line movement between successive frames taken at 383 Hz. Examples of the various heat transfer regions are shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Two methods for estimating contact line speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Evolution of WF and CLD with time at different heat fluxes. (b) Evolution of area averaged heat flux, area averaged temperature, CLD, and WF with time at 15.0 W/cm2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The speed of advancing and receding contact line determined using the two methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The change of advancing and receding area with heat fluxes at Tbulk = 56 °C: (a) Contact line length and (b) percentage of the total area associated with advancing and receding areas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

(a) Dryout function at various heat fluxes at center of heater. “0” and “1” indicate liquid and vapor on the surface, respectively. (b) Average duration of dry patch and frequency of bubble events with heat flux. (c) Dryout function and temperature history at the center of the heater during transition through CHF.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Distribution of individual dry patch size with heat flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Regional contribution to the wall heat transfer at various heat fluxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Relation with heat flux from the surface and the wetted area

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In