0
Research Papers: Forced Convection

Evaluation of Nanofluids as Potential Novel Coolant for Aircraft Applications: The Case of De-ionized Water-Based Alumina Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Javier A. Narvaez

Department of Chemical &
Materials Engineering,
University of Dayton,
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
e-mail: jnarvaez0410@yahoo.com

Aaron R. Veydt

Chesapeake Energy,
3030 Wickford Ave NW,
Canton, OH 44708
e-mail: aaronveydt@gmail.com

Robert J. Wilkens

Professor
Director of Chemical Engineering,
Director of Bioengineering,
Department of Chemical &
Materials Engineering,
University of Dayton,
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
e-mail: wilkens@udayton.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 18, 2012; final manuscript received December 4, 2013; published online February 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ali Khounsary.

J. Heat Transfer 136(5), 051702 (Feb 26, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1663; doi: 10.1115/1.4026216 History: Received December 18, 2012; Revised December 04, 2013

There is a critical need for improved coolants for military aircraft applications. The objective of this research is to evaluate nanofluids as potential replacement for the coolant currently used by the Air Force. Alumina/DI water nanofluids were evaluated. It was observed that at the same volumetric flow there was no significant improvement in convective heat transfer. Problems associated with the nanofluids were observed: increase of pressure drop with concentration, particle settling, and especially evidence of vaporization promoted by the nanoparticles. Results raised doubts about the applicability of using nanofluids as alternative coolants for avionic applications.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Keblinski, P., Eastman, J. A., and Cahill, D. G., 2005, “Nanofluids for Thermal Transport,” Mater. Today, 8(6), pp. 36–44. [CrossRef]
Yu, W., France, D. M., Routbort, J. L., and Choi, S. U. S., 2008, “Review and Comparison of Nanofluid Thermal Conductivity and Heat Transfer Enhancements,” Heat Transfer Eng.29(5), pp. 432–460. [CrossRef]
Eastman, J. A., Choi, S. U. S., Li, S., Yu, W., and Thompson, L. J., 2001, “Anomalously Increased Effective Thermal Conductivities of Ethylene Glycol-Based Nanofluids Containing Copper Nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 78(6), pp. 718–720. [CrossRef]
Patel, H. E., Das, S. K., Sundararajan, T., Nair, A. S., George, B., and Pradeep, T., 2003, “Thermal Conductivities of Naked and Monolayer Protected Metal Nanoparticle Based Nanofluids: Manifestation of Anomalous Enhancement and Chemical Effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 83(14), pp. 2931–2933. [CrossRef]
Das, S. K., Putra, N., Thiesen, P., and Roetzel, W., 2003, “Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125, pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Xie, H., Wang, J., Xi, T., Liu, Y., Ai, F., and Wu, Q., 2002, “Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Suspensions containing Nanosized Alumina Particles,” J. Appl. Phys., 91(7), pp. 4568–4572. [CrossRef]
Narvaez, J. A., 2010, “Thermal Conductivity of Poly-Alpha-Olefin (PAO)-Based Nanofluids,” M.S. thesis, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ap:10:0::NO:10:P10_ETD_SUBID:53623#abstract-files
Veydt, A. R., 2010, “System Level Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Water-Based and PAO Based Alumina Nanofluids,” M.S. thesis, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ap:0:0:APPLICATION_PROCESS=DOWNLOAD_ETD_SUB_DOC_ACCNUM:::F1501_ID:dayton1293473550, inline
Lee, J. H., Hwang, K. S., Jang, S. P., Lee, B. H., Kim, J. H., Choi, S. U. S., and Choi, C. J., 2008, “Effective Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities of Aqueous Nanofluids containing Low Volume Concentrations of Al2O3 nanoparticles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(11), pp. 2651–2656. [CrossRef]
Zhou, S. Q., Ni, R., and Funfschilling, D., 2010, “Effects of Shear Rate and Temperature on Viscosity of Alumina Polyalphaolefins Nanofluids,” J. Appl. Phys., 107(5), pp. 054317–054317. [CrossRef]
Yang.Y., Zhang, Z. G., Grulke, E. A., Anderson, W. B., and Wu, G., 2005, “Heat Transfer Properties of Nanoparticles-in-Fluid Dispersions (Nanofluids) in Laminar Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(6), pp. 1107–1116. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, C. T., Roy, G., Gauthier, C., and Galanis, N., 2007, “Heat Transfer Enhancement using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid for an Electronic Liquid Cooling System,” Appl. Thermal Eng., 27(8), pp. 1501–1506. [CrossRef]
Wen, D., and Ding, Y., 2004, “Experimental Investigation Into Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids at the Entrance Region Under Laminar Flow Conditions,” Int. J. Heat and Mass Transfer, 47(24), pp. 5181–5188. [CrossRef]
Williams, W., Buongiorno, J., and Hu, L.-W., 2008, “Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss of Alumina/Water and Zirconia/Water Nanoparticle Colloids (nanofluids) in Horizontal Tubes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130, pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y., and Li, Q., 2003, “Investigation on Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Features of Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125, pp. 151–155. [CrossRef]
Ding, Y., Alias, H., Wen, D., and Williams, R. A., 2006, “Heat Transfer of Aqueous Suspensions of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT Nanofluids),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(1), pp. 240–250. [CrossRef]
Jung, J.-Y., Oh, H. S., and Kwak, H. Y., 2009, “Forced Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Microchannels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(1), pp. 466–472. [CrossRef]
Liu, D., and Yu, L., 2011, “Single-Phase Thermal Transport of Nanofluids in a Minichannel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(3), pp. 031009 1-11. [CrossRef]
Ho, C.-J., Wei, L. C., and Li, Z. W., 2010, “An Experimental Investigation of Forced Convective Cooling Performance of a Microchannel Heat Sink With Al2O3/Water Nanofluid,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(2), pp. 96–103. [CrossRef]
Kim, D., Kwon, Y., Cho, Y., Li, C., Cheong, S., Hwang, Y., Lee, J., Hong, D., and Moon, S., 2009, “Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids Under Laminar and Turbulent Flow Conditions,” Curr. Appl. Phys., 9(2), pp. e119–e123. [CrossRef]
Lee, J., and Mudawar, I., 2007, “Assessment of the Effectiveness of Nanofluids for Single-Phase and Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Micro-Channels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(3), pp. 452–463. [CrossRef]
Godson, L., Raja, B., Mohan Lal, D., and Wongwises, S., 2010, “Enhancement of Heat Transfer Using Nanofluids–An Overview,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14(2), pp. 629–641. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, Y. I., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11(2), pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Zeinali Heris, S., Esfahany, M. N., and Etemad, S. Gh., 2007, “Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Circular Tube,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 28(2), pp. 203–210. [CrossRef]
Kakaç, S., and Pramuanjaroenkij, A., 2009, “Review of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement With Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(13), pp. 3187–3196. [CrossRef]
Daungthongsuk, W., and Wongwises, S., 2007, “A Critical Review of Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 11(5), pp. 797–817. [CrossRef]
Wang, X.-Q., and Mujumdar, A. S., 2008, “A Review on Nanofluids—Part I: Theoretical and Numerical Investigations,” Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 25(4), pp. 613–630. [CrossRef]
WenD., Lin, G., Vafaei, S., and Zhang, K., 2009, “Review of Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications,” Particuology, 7(2), pp. 141–150. [CrossRef]
Ayub, Z. H., 2003, “Plate Heat Exchanger Literature Survey and New Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Correlations for Refrigerant Evaporators,” Heat Transfer Eng., 24(5), pp. 3–16. [CrossRef]
Vaie, C. A. A., 1975, “The Performance of Plate Heat Exchanger,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.
Kline, S. J., and McClintock, F. A., 1953, “Describing Uncertainties in Single-Sample Experiments”, Mech. Eng., 75(1), pp. 3–8.
Farber, E. A., and Scorah, R. L., 1948, Heat Transfer to Water Boiling Under Pressure, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of coolant loop apparatus. In the figure, R1 and R2 are rotameters, CP1 and CP2 are cold plates, PFHE is the plate-and-frame heat exchanger, and Δp1 and Δp2 are differential pressure transducers.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Placement of thermocouples around cold plates. Thermocouples TC 1 – 4, placed between the cold plate and the copper blocks (gray area), measure wall temperatures. Thermocouples TC 1 – 3 are placed above the cold plate and thermocouple TC 4 is placed below it. Distances are in mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of the cooling section. The placement of the thermocouples is shown. The three layers of the process fluid and of the chilling water (dotted and white areas, respectively) are shown in the side view.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of boiling on wall and interfacial temperatures for low and high volumetric flows

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average of wall temperature difference at points TC2 and TC4 (Fig. 2) on cold plates, CP1 and CP2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Bulk temperature increase for DI water and the alumina/DI water nanofluids through cold plates 1 and 2. Equal volumetric flow through the cold plates has been assumed here.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat for the four process fluids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Average wall temperature at the center wall of cold plates 1 and 2 for DI water and the alumina/DI water nanofluids. It was assumed that the volumetric flow inside each cold plate is the same.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Evaluation of energy balance equation shown in Eq. (22) the four process fluids: DI water and the 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % aluminum/DI water nanofluids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Overall heat transfer coefficient U for DI water and 2.5, 5 and 10 wt. % alumina nanofluids flowing through the plate and frame heat exchanger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

System pressure drop for the four process fluids

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison between predicted and experimental overall heat transfer coefficients for DI water and 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % alumina/DI water nanofluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Film transfer coefficient h for DI water and 2.5 and 5 wt. % alumina nanofluids flowing through cold plates 1 and 2 (CP1 and CP2, respectively)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison between predicted and experimental film heat transfer coefficients for DI water and 2.5 wt. % alumina/DI water nanofluid

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In