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Research Papers: Forced Convection

Evaluation of Nanofluids as Potential Novel Coolant for Aircraft Applications: The Case of De-ionized Water-Based Alumina Nanofluids

[+] Author and Article Information
Javier A. Narvaez

Department of Chemical &
Materials Engineering,
University of Dayton,
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
e-mail: jnarvaez0410@yahoo.com

Aaron R. Veydt

Chesapeake Energy,
3030 Wickford Ave NW,
Canton, OH 44708
e-mail: aaronveydt@gmail.com

Robert J. Wilkens

Professor
Director of Chemical Engineering,
Director of Bioengineering,
Department of Chemical &
Materials Engineering,
University of Dayton,
300 College Park,
Dayton, OH 45469
e-mail: wilkens@udayton.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 18, 2012; final manuscript received December 4, 2013; published online February 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ali Khounsary.

J. Heat Transfer 136(5), 051702 (Feb 26, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-12-1663; doi: 10.1115/1.4026216 History: Received December 18, 2012; Revised December 04, 2013

There is a critical need for improved coolants for military aircraft applications. The objective of this research is to evaluate nanofluids as potential replacement for the coolant currently used by the Air Force. Alumina/DI water nanofluids were evaluated. It was observed that at the same volumetric flow there was no significant improvement in convective heat transfer. Problems associated with the nanofluids were observed: increase of pressure drop with concentration, particle settling, and especially evidence of vaporization promoted by the nanoparticles. Results raised doubts about the applicability of using nanofluids as alternative coolants for avionic applications.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of coolant loop apparatus. In the figure, R1 and R2 are rotameters, CP1 and CP2 are cold plates, PFHE is the plate-and-frame heat exchanger, and Δp1 and Δp2 are differential pressure transducers.

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Fig. 2

Placement of thermocouples around cold plates. Thermocouples TC 1 – 4, placed between the cold plate and the copper blocks (gray area), measure wall temperatures. Thermocouples TC 1 – 3 are placed above the cold plate and thermocouple TC 4 is placed below it. Distances are in mm.

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the cooling section. The placement of the thermocouples is shown. The three layers of the process fluid and of the chilling water (dotted and white areas, respectively) are shown in the side view.

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Fig. 4

Viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat for the four process fluids

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Fig. 5

Evaluation of energy balance equation shown in Eq. (22) the four process fluids: DI water and the 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % aluminum/DI water nanofluids

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Fig. 6

Average wall temperature at the center wall of cold plates 1 and 2 for DI water and the alumina/DI water nanofluids. It was assumed that the volumetric flow inside each cold plate is the same.

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Fig. 7

Effect of boiling on wall and interfacial temperatures for low and high volumetric flows

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Fig. 8

Average of wall temperature difference at points TC2 and TC4 (Fig. 2) on cold plates, CP1 and CP2

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Fig. 9

Bulk temperature increase for DI water and the alumina/DI water nanofluids through cold plates 1 and 2. Equal volumetric flow through the cold plates has been assumed here.

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Fig. 10

System pressure drop for the four process fluids

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Fig. 11

Film transfer coefficient h for DI water and 2.5 and 5 wt. % alumina nanofluids flowing through cold plates 1 and 2 (CP1 and CP2, respectively)

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Fig. 12

Comparison between predicted and experimental film heat transfer coefficients for DI water and 2.5 wt. % alumina/DI water nanofluid

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Fig. 14

Comparison between predicted and experimental overall heat transfer coefficients for DI water and 2.5, 5, and 10 wt. % alumina/DI water nanofluid

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Fig. 13

Overall heat transfer coefficient U for DI water and 2.5, 5 and 10 wt. % alumina nanofluids flowing through the plate and frame heat exchanger

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