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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Evaluation of Pressure Drop Performance During Enhanced Flow Boiling in Open Microchannels With Tapered Manifolds

[+] Author and Article Information
Ankit Kalani

Department of Mechanical
Engineering & Microsystems Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: axk2161@rit.edu

Satish G. Kandlikar

Department of Mechanical
Engineering & Microsystems Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 16, 2013; final manuscript received December 10, 2013; published online February 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Sujoy Kumar Saha.

J. Heat Transfer 136(5), 051502 (Feb 26, 2014) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-13-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4026306 History: Received May 16, 2013; Revised December 10, 2013

Boiling can provide several orders of magnitude higher performance than a traditional air cooled system in electronics cooling applications. It can dissipate large quantities of heat while maintaining a low surface temperature difference. Flow boiling with microchannels has shown a great potential with its high surface area to volume ratio and latent heat removal. However, flow instabilities and low critical heat flux (CHF) have prevented its successful implementation. A novel flow boiling design is experimentally investigated to overcome the above-mentioned disadvantages while presenting a very low pressure drop. The design uses open microchannels with a tapered manifold (OMM) to provide stable and efficient operation. The effect of tapered manifold block with varied dimension is investigated with distilled, degassed water at atmospheric pressure. Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop results for uniform and tapered manifolds with plain and microchannel chips are presented. The OMM configuration yielded a CHF of over 500 W/cm2 in our earlier work. In the current work, a heat transfer coefficient of 277.8 kW/m2 °C was obtained using an OMM design with an inlet gap of 127 μm and an exit gap of 727 μm over a 10 mm flow length. The OMM geometry also resulted in a dramatic reduction in pressure drop from 158.4 kPa for a plain chip and 62.1 kPa for a microchannel chip with a uniform manifold, to less than 10 kPa with the tapered OMM design. A tapered manifold (inlet and exit manifold heights of 127 and 727 μm, respectively) with microchannel provided the lowest pressure drop of 3.3 kPa.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the tapered manifold [27]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the flow boiling test setup showing the uniform and tapered manifolds (not to scale)

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the microchannel copper chip

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Fig. 4

Boiling performance showing heat flux versus wall superheat for plain and microchannel chip with uniform manifold

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Fig. 5

Pressure drop versus heat flux for plain and microchannel chip with uniform manifold

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Fig. 6

Boiling performance of plain and microchannel chips with the tapered manifold C

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Fig. 7

Pressure drop performance for plain and microchannel chips with tapered manifold C

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Fig. 8

Boiling performance of plain chip with tapered and uniform manifold

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Fig. 9

Pressure drop performance of plain chip with uniform and tapered manifolds

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Fig. 10

Boiling performance of the microchannel chip with uniform and tapered manifolds

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Fig. 11

Pressure drop performance of microchannel chip with uniform and tapered manifolds

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Fig. 12

Boiling performance comparison for tapered manifold with microchannel chip and uniform manifold with both plain and microchannel chips

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Fig. 13

Pressure drop performance comparison with tapered manifold C with microchannel chip and uniform manifold with both chips

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Fig. 14

Comparison of heat transfer coefficient for plain and microchannel chip with tapered manifolds B and C

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