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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Bubble Formation on the Surface of Laser-Irradiated Nanosized Particles

[+] Author and Article Information
Ho-Young Kwak

Mem. ASME
Professor (CAU Fellow)
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, Korea
e-mail: kwakhy@cau.ac.kr

Jaekyoon Oh

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, Korea
e-mail: jakeoh@chol.com

Yungpil Yoo

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, Korea
e-mail: newreality@naver.com

Shahid Mahmood

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Chung-Ang University,
Seoul 156-756, Korea
e-mail: shahidmehmood1174@yahoo.com

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received January 6, 2014; final manuscript received March 17, 2014; published online April 17, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Robert D. Tzou.

J. Heat Transfer 136(8), 081501 (Apr 17, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1010; doi: 10.1115/1.4027252 History: Received January 06, 2014; Revised March 17, 2014

It is well known that a phase transition from liquid to vapor occurs in the thermal boundary layer adjacent to a nanoparticle that has a high temperature upon irradiation with a high-power laser. In this study, the mechanism by which the evaporated layer adjacent to a laser-irradiated nanoparticle can grow as a bubble was investigated through detailed calculations. The pressure of the evaporated liquid volume due to heat diffusion from the irradiated nanoparticle was estimated using a bubble nucleation model based on molecular interactions. The bubble wall motion was obtained using the Keller-Miksis equation. The density and temperature inside the bubble were obtained by solving the continuity and energy equation for the vapor inside the bubble. The evaporation of water molecules or condensation of water vapor at the vapor–liquid interface and the homogeneous nucleation of vapor were also considered. The calculated bubble radius-time curve for the bubble formed on the surface of a gold particle with a diameter of 9 nm is close to the experimental result. Our study reveals that an appropriate size of the evaporated liquid volume and a large expansion velocity are important parameters for the formation of a transient nanosized bubble. The calculation result suggests that homogeneous condensation of vapor rather than condensation at the interface occurs.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Calculated temperature rise in a 9 nm diameter gold particle irradiated with a 532 nm laser pulse at an intensity of 7.5 W/μm2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Bubble radius as a function of time with an initial radius of 8.5 nm, pressure of 83.09 MPa, temperature of 575 K, initial expansion velocity of 1036 m/s, and ce = 0.04 in water at 25 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Calculated vapor pressure inside the bubble depending on time for the case shown in Fig. 2. The solid line is calculated by our method and the dotted line by Rayleigh-Plesset.

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Fig. 4

Critical radius (--—) and super-saturation ratio (- - - -) for the nucleation of droplet from vapors inside the bubble

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Bubble radius-time curves with various initial radii for the case shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 6

Bubble radius-time curves with various initial velocities for the case shown in Fig. 2

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Fig. 7

Temperature at the bubble center (--—) and at the bubble wall (- - - -) for the case with heat transfer through the bubble wall and the temperature inside the bubble for the adiabatic expansion case (-- - -- - -)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Time-dependent heat transfer rate (--—) and eta in Eq. (32) (- - - -) during bubble evolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evaporation/condensation rate (--—) and net phase change rate (- - - -) during bubble evolution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Shock propagation due to the rapid expansion of the bubble shown in Fig. 2

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