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Research Papers: Forced Convection

Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid in Turbulent Pipe Flow Considering Particle Coagulation and Breakage

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian-Zhong Lin

State Key Laboratory of Fluid
Power Transmission and Control,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
Institute of Fluid Mechanics,
China Jiliang University,
Hangzhou 310018, China
e-mail: jzlin@zjuem.zju.edu.cn

Yi Xia

State Key Laboratory of Fluid
Power Transmission and Control,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China

Xiao-Ke Ku

Department of Energy and Process Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim, Norway

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received April 30, 2014; final manuscript received August 13, 2014; published online September 16, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Andrey Kuznetsov.

J. Heat Transfer 136(11), 111701 (Sep 16, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1273; doi: 10.1115/1.4028325 History: Received April 30, 2014; Revised August 13, 2014

Numerical simulations of Al2O3/water nanofluid in turbulent pipe flow are performed with considering the particle convection, diffusion, coagulation, and breakage. The distributions of particle volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer characteristics are obtained. The results show that the initial uniform distributions of particle volume concentration become nonuniform, and increase from the pipe wall to the center. The nonuniformity becomes significant along the flow direction from the entrance and attains a steady state gradually. Friction factors increase with the increase of particle volume concentrations and particle diameter, and with the decrease of Reynolds number. The friction factors increase remarkably at lower volume concentration, while slightly at higher volume concentration. The presence of nanoparticles provides higher heat transfer than pure water. The Nusselt number of nanofluids increases with increasing Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle diameter. The rate increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. For a fixed particle volume concentration, the friction factor is smaller while the Nusselt number is larger for the case with uniform distribution of particle volume concentration than that with nonuniform distribution. In order to effectively enhance the heat transfer using nanofluid and simultaneously save energy, it is necessary to make the particle distribution more uniform. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle diameter and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of mean velocity for pure fluid in the near-wall region. ○: present result; •: Dou's results [38]; ◻: logarithmic formula.

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Fig. 2

Comparison of particle volume concentration along radial direction. ○: present results (Re = 15,000); •: numerical simulation [41] (Re = 15,000).

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Fig. 3

Distributions of particle number concentration along radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◻ : z/D = 0; ○ : z/D = 10; △ : z/D = 20; ▽ : z/D = 30; ◇ : z/D = 40.

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Fig. 4

Distributions of particle volume concentration along the radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◻ : z/D = 0; ○ : z/D = 10; △ : z/D = 20; ▽ : z/D = 30; ◇ : z/D = 40.

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Fig. 5

Developing friction factor for different particle volume concentrations (Re = 15,000, dp = 30 nm). ◼: Blasius equation for pure fluid; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

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Fig. 6

Friction factor versus Reynolds number for different particle volume concentrations (dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

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Fig. 7

Distributions of turbulent kinetic energy along the radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

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Fig. 8

Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number for different particle diameters (Φ = 0.5%). ● : experimental [23]; ◆: dp = 70 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : dp = 30 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : dp = 10 nm; ○ : dp = 30 nm; ▽ : dp = 50 nm; ◇ : dp = 70 nm.

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Fig. 9

Developing Nusselt number for different particle volume concentrations (Re = 15,000, dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% (Re = 20,000) experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

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Fig. 10

Nusselt number versus Reynolds number for different particle volume concentrations (dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

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Fig. 11

Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different particle diameter (Φ = 0.5%). ● : experimental [23]; ◆: dp = 70 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : dp = 10 nm; ○ : dp = 30 nm; ▽ : dp = 50 nm ◇:dp = 70 nm.

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Fig. 12

Relationship between friction factor and dimensionless parameter η. ○ : numerical data; ◻: fitted curve.

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Fig. 13

Relationship between Nusselt number and dimensionless parameter λ. ○ : numerical data; ◻: fitted curve.

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