0
Research Papers: Forced Convection

Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid in Turbulent Pipe Flow Considering Particle Coagulation and Breakage

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian-Zhong Lin

State Key Laboratory of Fluid
Power Transmission and Control,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China
Institute of Fluid Mechanics,
China Jiliang University,
Hangzhou 310018, China
e-mail: jzlin@zjuem.zju.edu.cn

Yi Xia

State Key Laboratory of Fluid
Power Transmission and Control,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, China

Xiao-Ke Ku

Department of Energy and Process Engineering,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Trondheim, Norway

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received April 30, 2014; final manuscript received August 13, 2014; published online September 16, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Andrey Kuznetsov.

J. Heat Transfer 136(11), 111701 (Sep 16, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1273; doi: 10.1115/1.4028325 History: Received April 30, 2014; Revised August 13, 2014

Numerical simulations of Al2O3/water nanofluid in turbulent pipe flow are performed with considering the particle convection, diffusion, coagulation, and breakage. The distributions of particle volume concentration, the friction factor, and heat transfer characteristics are obtained. The results show that the initial uniform distributions of particle volume concentration become nonuniform, and increase from the pipe wall to the center. The nonuniformity becomes significant along the flow direction from the entrance and attains a steady state gradually. Friction factors increase with the increase of particle volume concentrations and particle diameter, and with the decrease of Reynolds number. The friction factors increase remarkably at lower volume concentration, while slightly at higher volume concentration. The presence of nanoparticles provides higher heat transfer than pure water. The Nusselt number of nanofluids increases with increasing Reynolds number, particle volume concentration, and particle diameter. The rate increase in Nusselt number at lower particle volume concentration is more than that at higher concentration. For a fixed particle volume concentration, the friction factor is smaller while the Nusselt number is larger for the case with uniform distribution of particle volume concentration than that with nonuniform distribution. In order to effectively enhance the heat transfer using nanofluid and simultaneously save energy, it is necessary to make the particle distribution more uniform. Finally, the expressions of friction factor and Nusselt number as a function of particle volume concentration, particle diameter and Reynolds number are derived based on the numerical data.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Jwo, C. S., Teng, T. P., Wu, D. J., Chang, H., and Chen, S. L., 2009, “Research on Pressure Loss of Alumina Nanofluid Flow in a Pipe,” J. Chin. Soc. Mech. Eng., 30(6), pp. 511–517.
Hao, P., Ding, G. L., and Jiang, W. T., 2009, “Measurement and Correlation of Frictional Pressure Drop of Refrigerant-Based Nanofluid Flow Boiling Inside a Horizontal Smooth Tube,” Int. J. Refrig., 32(7), pp. 1756–1764. [CrossRef]
Kuznetsov, A. V., and Nield, D. A., 2010, “Natural Convective Boundary-Layer Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Vertical Plate,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(2), pp. 243–247. [CrossRef]
Duangthongsuk, W., and Wongwises, S., 2010, “An Experimental Study on the Heat Transfer Performance and Pressure Drop of TiO2–Water Nanofluids Flowing Under a Turbulent Flow Regime,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(1–3), pp. 334–344. [CrossRef]
Heyhat, M. M., and Kowsary, F., 2010, “Effect of Particle Migration on Flow and Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids Flowing Through a Circular Pipe,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(6), p. 062401. [CrossRef]
Torii, S., Satou, Y., and Koito, Y., 2010, “Experimental Study on Convective Thermal-Fluid Flow Transport Phenomena in Circular Tube Using Nanofluids,” Int. J. Green Energy, 7(3), pp. 289–299. [CrossRef]
Sajadi, A. R., and Kazemi, M. H., 2011, “Investigation of Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of TiO2/Water Nanofluid in Circular Tube,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(10), pp. 1474–1478. [CrossRef]
Teng, T. P., Hung, Y. H., Jwo, C. S., Chen, C. C., and Jeng, L. Y., 2011, “Pressure Drop of TiO2 Nanofluid in Circular Pipes,” Particuology, 9(5), pp. 486–491. [CrossRef]
Zamzamian, A., Oskouie, S. N., Doosthoseini, A., Joneidi, A., and Pazouki, M., 2011, “Experimental Investigation of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient in Nanofluids of Al2O3/EG and CuO/EG in a Double Pipe and Plate Heat Exchangers under Turbulent Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(3), pp. 495–502. [CrossRef]
Li, D. D., Zhao, W. L., Liu, Z. M., and Zhu, B. J., 2011, “Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement of the Heat Pipe Using CuO–Water Nanofluid,” Adv. Mater. Res., 160–162, pp. 507–512. [CrossRef]
Julia, J. E., Hernandez, L., Martinez-Cuenca, R., Hibiki, T., Mondragón, R., Segarra, C., and Jarque, J. C., 2012, “Measurement and Modelling of Forced Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop of Al2O3 and SiO2–Water Nanofluids,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 395, p. 012038. [CrossRef]
Oztekin, A., Neti, S., and Ukaew, A., 2012, “Effects of Nanoparticles and Polymer Additives in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2010-40987. [CrossRef]
Keshavarz Moraveji, M., and Razvarz, S., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Aluminum Oxide Nanofluid on Heat Pipe Thermal Performance,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(9), pp. 1444–1448. [CrossRef]
Corcione, M., Cianfrini, M., and Quintino, A., 2012, “Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 56, pp. 58–69. [CrossRef]
Kayhani, M. H., Soltanzadeh, H., Heyhat, M. M., Nazari, M., and Kowsary, F., 2012, “Experimental Study of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of TiO2/Water Nanofluid,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 39(3), pp. 456–462. [CrossRef]
Farinas Alvarino, P., Saiz Jabardo, J. M., Arce, A., and Lamas Galdo, M. I., 2012, “Heat Transfer Enhancement in Nanofluids. A Numerical Approach,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 395(1), p. 012116. [CrossRef]
Om Shankar, P., and Rajvanshi, A. K., 2012, “Al2O3–Water Nanofluids in Convective Heat Transfer,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 110–116, pp. 3667–3672. [CrossRef]
Bayat, J., and Nikseresht, A. H., 2012, “Thermal Performance and Pressure Drop Analysis of Nanofluids in Turbulent Forced Convective Flows,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 60, pp. 236–243. [CrossRef]
Abbasian Arani, A. A., and Amani, J., 2012, “Experimental Study on the Effect of TiO2–Water Nanofluid on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 42, pp. 107–115. [CrossRef]
Ziaei-Rad, M., 2013, “Numerical Investigation of Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Developing Laminar and Turbulent Nanofluid Flows,” Phys. Scr., T155, p. 014021. [CrossRef]
Saleh, R., Putra, N., Prakoso, S. P., and Septiadi, W. N., 2013, “Experimental Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Heat Pipe Thermal Performance of ZnO Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 63, pp. 125–132. [CrossRef]
Azmi, W. H., Sharma, K. V., Sarma, P. K., and Septiadi, W. N., 2013, “Experimental Determination of Turbulent Forced Convection Heat Transfer and Friction Factor With SiO2 Nanofluid,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 51, pp. 103–111. [CrossRef]
Sahin, B., Gultekin, G. G., Manay, E., and Karagoz, S., 2013, “Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics of Al2O3–Water Nanofluid,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 50, pp. 21–28. [CrossRef]
Esfe, M. H., Saedodin, S., and Mahmoodi, M., 2014, “Experimental Studies on the Convective Heat Transfer Performance and Thermophysical Properties of MgO–Water Nanofluid Under Turbulent Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 52, pp. 68–78. [CrossRef]
Pouranfard, A. R., Mowla, D., and Esmaeilzadeh, F., 2014, “An Experimental Study of Drag Reduction by Nanofluids Through Horizontal Pipe Turbulent Flow of a Newtonian Liquid,” J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 20(2), pp. 633–637. [CrossRef]
Kuznetsov, A. V., and Nield, D. A., 2014, “Forced Convection in a Parallel-Plate Channel Occupied by a Nanofluid or a Porous Medium Saturated by a Nanofluid,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, pp. 430–433. [CrossRef]
Brinkman, H. C., 1952, “The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solution,” J. Chem. Phys., 20(4), pp. 571–581. [CrossRef]
Batchelor, G. K., 1977, “The Effect of Brownian Motion on the Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Spherical Particles,” J. Fluid Mech., 83(1), pp. 97–117. [CrossRef]
Maxwell, J., 1904, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Barthelmes, G., Pratsinis, S. E., and Buggisch, H., 2003, “Particle Size Distributions and Viscosity of Suspensions Undergoing Shear-Induced Coagulation and Fragmentation,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 58(13), pp. 2893–2902. [CrossRef]
Friedlander, S. K., 2000, “Smoke, Dust and Haze: Fundamentals of Aerosol Behavior,” Wiley, New York.
Saffman, P. G., and Turner, J. S., 1956, “On the Collision of Drops in Turbulent Clouds,” J. Fluid Mech., 1(1), pp. 16–30. [CrossRef]
Spicer, P. T., and Pratsinis, S. E., 1996, “Coagulation and Fragmentation: Universal. Steady-State Particle-Size Distribution,” AIChE J., 42(6), pp. 1612–1620. [CrossRef]
Marchisio, D. L., Vigil, R. D., and Fox, R. O., 2003, “Implementation of the Quadrature Method of Moments in CFD Codes for Aggregation-Breakage Problems,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 58(15), pp. 3337–3351. [CrossRef]
Yu, M. Z., Lin, J. Z., and Chan, T. L., 2008, “A New Moment Method for Solving the Coagulation Equation for Particles in Brownian Motion,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 42(9), pp. 705–713. [CrossRef]
Yu, M. Z., and Lin, J. Z., 2009, “Taylor-Expansion Moment Method for Agglomerate Coagulation due to Brownian Motion in the Entire Size Regime,” J. Aerosol Sci., 40(6), pp. 549–562. [CrossRef]
Kader, B. A., 1981, “Temperature and Concentration Profiles in Fully Turbulent Boundary Layers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 24(9), pp. 1541–1544. [CrossRef]
Dou, G. R., 1979, “Generalized Laws of Turbulent Flow in Open Channels and Pipes for Various Regions,” Hydrosci. Eng., 1, pp. 1–12.
Nikuradse, J., 1933, “Stromungsgesetze in rauhen rohren,” Forsch. Arb. Ing.-Wes, 361, pp. 1–22.
Clark, J. A., 1968, “A Study of Incompressible Turbulent Boundary Layers in Channel Flows,” ASME J. Fluid Eng., 90(4), pp. 455–462. [CrossRef]
Ding, W. L., and Wen, D. S., 2005, “Particle Migration in a Flow of Nanoparticle Suspension,” Powder Technol., 149(2–3), pp. 84–92. [CrossRef]
Lam, Y. C., Chen, X., Tan, K. W., Chai, J. C., and Yu, S. C. M., 2004, “Numerical Investigation of Particle Migration in Poiseuille Flow of Composite System,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 64(7–8), pp. 1001–1010. [CrossRef]
Frank, D., Anderson, E. R., and Weeks, J. F., 2003, “Particle Migration in Pressure-Driven Flow of Brownian Suspension,” J. Fluid Mech., 493, pp. 363–378. [CrossRef]
Kulkarni, D. P., Namburu, P. K., Bargar, H. E., and Das, D. K., 2008, “Convective Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamic Characteristics of SiO2 Ethylene Glycol/Water Nanofluid,” Heat Transfer Eng., 29(12), pp. 1027–1035. [CrossRef]
Pak, B., and Cho, Y., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11(2), pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
He, Y., Jin, Y., Chen, H., Ding, Y., Cang, D., and Lu, H., 2007, “Heat Transfer and Flow Behavior of Aqueous Suspensions of TiO2 Nanoparticles (Nanofluids) Flowing Upward Through a Vertical Pipe,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(11–12), pp. 2272–2281. [CrossRef]
Abbasian Arani, A. A., and Amani, J., 2013, “Experimental Investigation of Diameter Effect on Heat Transfer Performance and Pressure Drop of TiO2–Water Nanofluid,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 44, pp. 520–533. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, C. T., Roy, G., Gauthier, C., and Galanis, N., 2007, “Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Al2O3–Water Nanofluid for an Electronic Liquid Cooling System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 27(8–9), pp. 1501–1506. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Comparison of mean velocity for pure fluid in the near-wall region. ○: present result; •: Dou's results [38]; ◻: logarithmic formula.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of particle volume concentration along radial direction. ○: present results (Re = 15,000); •: numerical simulation [41] (Re = 15,000).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Distributions of particle number concentration along radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◻ : z/D = 0; ○ : z/D = 10; △ : z/D = 20; ▽ : z/D = 30; ◇ : z/D = 40.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distributions of particle volume concentration along the radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◻ : z/D = 0; ○ : z/D = 10; △ : z/D = 20; ▽ : z/D = 30; ◇ : z/D = 40.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Developing friction factor for different particle volume concentrations (Re = 15,000, dp = 30 nm). ◼: Blasius equation for pure fluid; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Friction factor versus Reynolds number for different particle volume concentrations (dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Distributions of turbulent kinetic energy along the radial direction (Re = 15,000). ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of friction factor with Reynolds number for different particle diameters (Φ = 0.5%). ● : experimental [23]; ◆: dp = 70 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : dp = 30 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : dp = 10 nm; ○ : dp = 30 nm; ▽ : dp = 50 nm; ◇ : dp = 70 nm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Developing Nusselt number for different particle volume concentrations (Re = 15,000, dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% (Re = 20,000) experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Nusselt number versus Reynolds number for different particle volume concentrations (dp = 30 nm). ● : Φ = 0.5% experimental [23]; ◆: Φ = 4% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) ⊕ : Φ = 0.5% (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : Φ = 0%; ○ : Φ = 0.5%; ▽ : Φ = 2%; ◇ : Φ = 4%.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variation of Nusselt number with Reynolds number for different particle diameter (Φ = 0.5%). ● : experimental [23]; ◆: dp = 70 nm (uniform distribution of particle volume concentration) nonuniform distribution of particle volume concentration: ◻ : dp = 10 nm; ○ : dp = 30 nm; ▽ : dp = 50 nm ◇:dp = 70 nm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relationship between friction factor and dimensionless parameter η. ○ : numerical data; ◻: fitted curve.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Relationship between Nusselt number and dimensionless parameter λ. ○ : numerical data; ◻: fitted curve.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In