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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Flow Boiling Dynamics of Water and Nanofluids in a Single Microchannel at Different Heat Fluxes

[+] Author and Article Information
Zachary Edel

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics,
Michigan Technological University,
1800 Townsend Drive,
Houghton, MI 49931
e-mail: zjedel@mtu.edu

Abhijit Mukherjee

Mem. ASME
California State University,
Northridge at 18111 Nordhoff Street,
Northridge, CA 91330
e-mail: abhijit.mukherjee@csun.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received January 19, 2014; final manuscript received October 4, 2014; published online November 11, 2014. Assoc. Editor: W. Q. Tao.

J. Heat Transfer 137(1), 011501 (Jan 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4028763 History: Received January 19, 2014; Revised October 04, 2014; Online November 11, 2014

The preferable cooling solution for micro-electronic systems could be forced flow boiling in micro heat exchangers. Nanoparticle deposition affects nucleate boiling via alteration of surface roughness, capillary wicking, wettability, and nucleation site density. In this study, flow boiling was investigated using water and nanofluids in a single rectangular microchannel at different heat fluxes. The observed change in flow regime transition revealed the effect of nanoparticles on the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and the onset of bubble elongation (OBE). The addition of nanoparticles was found to stabilize bubble nucleation and growth and increase heat transfer in the thin film regions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental flow loop. Tests were performed at a flow rate of Re = 100 for heat fluxes of 130 kW/m2 and 300 kW/m2.

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the test section

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Fig. 3

Average surface temperatures along the length of the microchannel for Re = 100, Tin = 63 °C, and heat fluxes of 130 kW/m2 and 300 kW/m2

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Fig. 4

Records for the location of OBE as measured from the inlet for (a) Re = 100, q″ = 130 kW/m2 and (b) Re = 100, q″ = 300 kW/m2

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Fig. 5

Bubble growth measurements for water on a clean surface at Re = 100, Tin = 68 °C, and q=260 kW/m2 with times aligned to 0 ms for (a) the start of channel flooding and (b) the time at which the bubble diameter is half that of the microchannel. The legend shows bubble order in the given cycle.

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Fig. 6

Bubble growth measurements after 125 min of nanofluid flow boiling at Re = 100, Tin = 68 °C, and q=260 kW/m2 with times aligned to 0 ms for (a) the start of channel flooding and (b) the time at which the bubble diameter is half that of the microchannel

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Fig. 7

Image sequences for Re = 100, Tin = 63 °C, and q″ = 130 kW/m2 for (a) water on a clean surface, and after (b) 25 min of nanofluid flow boiling, (c) 75 min of nanofluid flow boiling, and (d) 125 min of nanofluid flow boiling. Black indicates liquid and white indicates vapor in the microchannel.

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Fig. 8

Image sequences for Re = 100, Tin = 63 °C, and q″ = 300 kW/m2 for (a) water on a clean surface, and after (b) 25 min of nanofluid flow boiling, (c) 75 min of nanofluid flow boiling, and (d) 125 min of nanofluid flow boiling. Black indicates liquid and white indicates vapor in the microchannel.

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Fig. 12

Records for the location of OBE as measured from the inlet for Re = 100, q″ = 130 kW/m2, and a nanofluid concentration of 0.01 vol. %

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Fig. 11

Bubble nucleation frequency at different heat fluxes with water (0 min) and different nanofluid flow boiling durations at Re = 100, Tin = 63 °C, and heat fluxes of 130 kW/m2 and 300 kW/m2

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Fig. 10

Duration of a typical flow transition cycle for water (0 min) and different nanofluid flow boiling durations at Re = 100, Tin = 63 °C, and heat fluxes of 130 kW/m2 and 300 kW/m2

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Fig. 9

Percentage of the flow cycle occupied by single-phase liquid or vapor for different nanofluid flow boiling durations and (a) Re = 100, q″ = 130 kW/m2 and (b) Re = 100, q″ = 300 kW/m2

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