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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Quantifying the Growth Rate and Morphology of Ice Crystals Growth in Cryoprotectants Via High-Speed Camera and Cryomicroscope

[+] Author and Article Information
Xu Xue, Hai-Lan Jin

Beijing Key Lab of Cryo-Biomedical
Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics,
Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

Zhi-Zhu He

Beijing Key Lab of Cryo-Biomedical
Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics,
Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: zzhe@mail.ipc.ac.cn

Jing Liu

Beijing Key Lab of Cryo-Biomedical
Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics,
Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
School of Medicine,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn

Manuscript received April 30, 2014; final manuscript received January 26, 2015; published online May 14, 2015. Assoc. Editor: L. Q. Wang.

J. Heat Transfer 137(9), 091020 (May 14, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1276; doi: 10.1115/1.4030236 History: Received April 30, 2014

Recently, several significant progresses have been made on the studies of extracellular and intracellular ice formation based on high-speed camera and cryomicroscope. This experimental methodology could accurately capture the rapid formation process of ice crystals at microscale. However, quantitative interpretation on such phase change behavior still reserved a tough issue. Here, in this paper, we quantitatively studied the ice crystals growth in three kinds of cryoprotectants like dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), sucrose, and trehalose via high-speed camera, cryomicroscope as well as the proposed data processing method. Several critical impact factors such as the concentration of cryoprotectants and the cooling rate have been investigated. Particularly, an efficient image processing technology has been developed to quantify the growth rate and morphology of the ice crystals. The results indicate that the species and concentration of cryoprotectants and the cooling rate could significantly affect the growth rate and morphology of ice crystals. DMSO is better than trehalose and sucrose as cryoprotectant because of the molecular structure. This work established a new methodology to quantify the ice crystals growth and would enhance current understanding of the factors for ice crystals formation. It is also expected to help optimize the cryopreservation process in the near future.

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Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Crystals , Ice , Cooling , Cryonics
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Figures

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Fig. 5

The length of the ice crystal growth in 5% DMSO, sucrose, and trehalose

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Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of calculation of the length of the ice crystal growth

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Fig. 1

Linkam BCS-196 biological cryostage system: (a) thermal stage; (b) Dewar (liquid nitrogen); and (c) cryostage system temperature controller

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Fig. 6

The ice crystal grew in 5% DMSO after 80 s at different cooling rate. (a) 0.5 °C/min; (b) 5 °C/min; and (c) 20 °C/min.

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Fig. 7

The radius of curvature (μm) of ice crystals in different cryoprotectants. (a) 5% DMSO; (b) 5% trehalose; and (c) 5% sucrose.

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Fig. 3

(a) Image of ice crystal at 0.5 °C/min cooling rate in 5% DMSO solution; (b) edge detection result by the Canny algorithm; (c) two edges expansion; (d) edge thinness; and (e) edge expansion

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Fig. 2

The ice crystal growth at 0.5 °C/min cooling rate in 5% DMSO solution. (a) Start freezing; (b) 10 s; (c) 20 s; (d) 30 s; (e) 40 s; (f) 50 s; (g) 60 s; and (h) 70 s.

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