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Review Article

Numerical Solutions of Nano/Microphenomena Coupled With Macroscopic Process of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow: A Brief Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Ya-Ling He

Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science
and Engineering of MOE,
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Shaanxi 710049, China

Wen-Quan Tao

Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science
and Engineering of MOE,
School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
Shaanxi 710049, China
e-mail: wqtao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 4, 2014; final manuscript received September 11, 2014; published online May 14, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yogesh Jaluria.

J. Heat Transfer 137(9), 090801 (Sep 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1293; doi: 10.1115/1.4030239 History: Received May 04, 2014; Revised September 11, 2014; Online May 14, 2015

In this paper, numerical simulation approaches for multiscale process of heat transfer and fluid flow are briefly reviewed, and the existing coupling algorithms are summarized. These molecular dynamics simulation (MDS)–finite volume method (FVM), MD–lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and direct simulation of Monte Carlo method (DSMC)–FVM. The available reconstruction operators for LBM–FVM coupling are introduced. Four multiscale examples for fluid flow and heat transfer are presented by using these coupled methods. It is shown that by coupled method different resolution requirements in the computational domain can be satisfied successfully while computational time can be significantly saved. Further research needs for the study of multiscale heat transfer and fluid flow problems are proposed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of PEMFC

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Fig. 2

Different facilities encountered by cooling stream in a data center

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Fig. 3

Numerical approaches for multiscale heat transfer and fluid flow problems

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Fig. 4

Space coupling between MDS and FVM. (a) Three regions and (b) interface coupling.

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Fig. 5

Time step coupling between MDS and FVM [25]

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Fig. 6

Momentum coupling for molecules in C–P layer

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Fig. 7

Thermal energy coupling for molecules in C–P layer

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Fig. 8

Boundary force for limited space of MD simulation

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Fig. 9

Boundary force variation with fluid state

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Fig. 10

Space coupling between MDS and LBM [30]. (a) Three regions and (b) coupling details.

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Fig. 11

Natural convection in a square cavity caused by concentration gradient [23]

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Fig. 12

Comparison of simulation results for natural convection in a square cavity caused by concentration gradient [23]

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Fig. 13

Flow around a porous square cylinder [29]. (a) Flow around a square cylinder and (b) details of flow field.

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Fig. 14

Treatment of irregular region by LBM [29]. (a) Resolution of porous medium region and (b) detail of treatment of irregular solid region.

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Fig. 15

In the figure the FVM symbols represent the solution procedure for flow around a solid (rather than porous) square cylinder

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Fig. 16

A mini-PEMFC model. (a) Computational domain and (b) simplified model of catalyst layer.

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Fig. 17

Coupled simulation results of flow field [22]. (a) Velocity distribution along x-direction, (b) details of u-velocity at four stations, and (c) details of local flow field.

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Fig. 18

Flow past a nanotube

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Fig. 19

Comparisons of numerical results by pure MDS and coupled MDS–LBM [30]. (a) Comparison of contours of absolute value of u and (b) comparison of velocity components.

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Fig. 20

Fully coupled multiscale simulation of a PEMFC

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