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Neutron Radiography of Condensation and Evaporation of Hydrogen in a Cryogenic Condition

[+] Author and Article Information
Kishan Bellur

Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931
ksbellur@mtu.edu

Ezequiel Medici

Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931
efmedici@mtu.edu

Jeffrey Allen

Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931
jstallen@mtu.edu

Chang Kyoung Choi

Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931
cchoi@mtu.edu

Jimes Hermanson

University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
jherm@aa.washington.edu

Arun Tamilarasan

University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
arunt@uw.edu

Daniel Hussey

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899
daniel.hussey@nist.gov

David Jacobson

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899
david.jacobson@nist.gov

Juscelino B. Leao

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899
juscelino.leao@nist.gov

John McQuillen

NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, Cleveland, OH 44135
john.b.mcquillen@nasa.gov

Corresponding author.

J. Heat Transfer 137(8), 080901 (Aug 01, 2015) Paper No: HT-15-1237; doi: 10.1115/1.4030442 History: Received March 30, 2015; Revised March 31, 2015; Online June 01, 2015

Abstract

The condensation and evaporation of hydrogen under cryogenic conditions is visualized by using neutron imaging at the BT-2 Beam Facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The condensation and evaporation are controlled by adjusting temperature (20 K ~ 23 K) and pressure (1.3 ~ 1.95 bar absolute). The hydrogen contained in the aluminum test cell inside the cryostat has a large attenuation coefficient due to its large scattering cross section. The high sensitivity of neutron radiography to hydrogen allows the visualization of a meniscus and a contact line of evaporating hydrogenated cryogenic propellants. The graphic represents the temperature, pressure and corresponding images of liquid hydrogen in the test cell. The test cell is made of Aluminum 6061 with an inner diameter of 12 mm. The captured images are then median filtered and post-processed in order to find the volume of liquid hydrogen in the test cell as a function of time. The condensation/evaporation rates obtained from neutron imaging along with corresponding temperature and pressure are used to validate the evaporation model being developed by the authors.

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