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Research Papers

Numerical Studies on Hydrogen Distribution in Enclosures in the Presence of Condensing Steam

[+] Author and Article Information
Nilesh Agrawal

Safety Research Institute,
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (IERB),
IGCAR Campus,
Government of India,
Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: nilesh_agrawal@igcar.gov.in

Sarit K. Das

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai 600036, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for Publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 21, 2014; final manuscript received April 22, 2015; published online August 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Sumanta Acharya.

J. Heat Transfer 137(12), 121008 (Aug 11, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1330; doi: 10.1115/1.4030924 History: Received May 21, 2014

Hydrogen release in confined spaces is an important safety issue, which is even more important in the context of severe accident in nuclear reactors. In severe accidents, hydrogen release is associated with release of steam and the condensation of steam on walls leads to increase in concentration of hydrogen in residual gas as well as condensation induced mixing. In the present paper, a model for falling film steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases is presented. The steam condensation model is incorporated into an in-house developed cfd code called hydrogen distribution simulator (HDS) and is used for hydrogen distribution studies. The validation of the CFD model with steam condensation against the experimental results from the CONAN facility is discussed. Subsequently, the model is applied to a typical release situation involving release of hydrogen and steam for some time and its distribution for a long time beyond it. The heat and mass transfer aspects of the problem are highlighted. It is seen that steam condensation has an important bearing on the distribution of hydrogen and the mixing behavior of gases in the enclosure.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of solution domain for implementation of steam condensation model

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Fig. 3

Schematic representation for calculation of average mass fraction of noncondensable gases

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for the steam condensation model

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Fig. 4

Solution domain for validation of steam condensation model

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Fig. 5

Variation of heat flux in the study of condensation in CONAN facility

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Fig. 7

Profiles of velocity ratio at midheight horizontal plane of the computational domain for (a) cases A1 and A2 and (b) cases B1 and B2

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Fig. 8

Profiles of hydrogen mole fraction at midheight horizontal plane of the computational domain for (a) cases A1 and A2 and (b) cases B1 and B2

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Fig. 9

Contour plots of hydrogen mole fraction for case A2 (without steam condensation) and case B2 (with steam condensation)

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Fig. 6

Geometry, initial, and boundary conditions for study of the effect of steam condensation on mixing and flammability of a stratified layer of hydrogen–steam and air

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Fig. 10

Ternary diagram for evolution of the jet of hydrogen-steam and air in cases A1 and A2 and B1 and B2

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Fig. 11

Plot of average mole fraction (Xav) with time for cases A1 and A2 and cases B1 and B2

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Fig. 12

Plot of nonuniformity index (χ) with time for cases A1 and A2 and cases B1 and B2

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Fig. 13

Plot of deflagration volume fraction (Vdef) with time for cases A1 and A2 and cases B1 and B2

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Fig. 14

Plot of deflagration pressure ratio (Pdef) with time for cases A1 and A2 and cases B1 and B2

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