0
Research Papers

Rewetting of Vertical Pipes by Bottom Flooding Using Nanofluid as a Coolant

[+] Author and Article Information
Gayatri Paul

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
e-mail: gayatri.paul@gmail.com

Prasanta Kumar Das

Professor and Head
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
e-mail: pkd@mech.iitkgp.ernet.in

Indranil Manna

Director
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh, India;
Department of Metallurgical and
Materials Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur,
Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal, India
e-mail: imanna@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 29, 2014; final manuscript received February 25, 2015; published online August 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Sumanta Acharya.

J. Heat Transfer 137(12), 121009 (Aug 11, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-14-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4030925 History: Received May 29, 2014

The present investigation reports the rewetting phenomenon by bottom flooding in vertical pipes using both water and nanofluid as coolant. The transient temperature response of rewetted surface indicates that rewetting takes place faster in nanofluids than in water. The effect of several parameters, including the coolant flow rate, distance from the inlet of fluid, concentration of nanoparticle loading on the rewetting characteristics, has been investigated. The rewetting velocity, for both water and nanofluid, is observed to depend strongly on the inlet coolant flow rate and initial wall temperature of the tube. The rewetting velocity is observed to follow the correlation for water proposed in an earlier work. Starting from the logic proposed in that previous report, the authors propose a correlation for predicting the rewetting velocity in nanofluids.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Choi, S. U. S. , and Eastman, J. A. , 1995, “Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, San Francisco, CA, pp. 12–47.
Wen, D. , and Ding, Y. , 2005, “Experimental Investigation Into the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Aqueous Based γ-Alumina Nanofluids,” J. Nanopart. Res., 7(2–3), pp. 265–274. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z.-H. , Yang, X.-F. , and Xiong, J.-G. , 2010, “Boiling Characteristics of Carbon Nanotube Suspensions Under Sub-Atmospheric Pressures,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(7), pp. 1156–1164. [CrossRef]
Sawan, M. E. , and Carbon, M. W. , 1975, “A Review of Spray-Cooling and Bottom-Flooding,” 32(2), pp. 191–207.
Elias, E. , and Yadigaroglu, G. , 1978, “The Reflooding Phase of LOCA in PWRs, Part II, Rewetting and Liquid Entrainment,” Nucl. Saf., 19, pp. 160–175.
Saxena, A. K. , Venkat Raj, V. , and Govardhana Rao, V. , 2001, “Experimental Studies on Rewetting of Hot Vertical Annular Channel,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 208(3), pp. 283–303. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. W. , Chun, S. Y. , Song, C. H. , and Bang, I. C. , 2012, “Effect of Nanofluids on Reflood Heat Transfer in a Long Vertical Tube,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(17–18), pp. 4766–4771. [CrossRef]
Yu, S. K. W. , Farmer, P. R. , and Coney, M. W. E. , 1977, “Methods and Correlations for the Prediction of Quenching Rates on Hot Surfaces,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 3(5), pp. 415–443. [CrossRef]
Carbajo, J. J. , and Siegel, A. D. , 1980, “Review and Comparison Among the Different Models for Rewetting in LWR's,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 58(1), pp. 33–44. [CrossRef]
Iloeje, O. C. , Plummer, D. N. , Rohsenow, W. M. , and Griffith, P. , 1982, “Effect of Mass Flux, Flow Quality, Thermal and Surface Properties of Materials on Rewet of Dispersed Flow Film Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104(2), pp. 304–308. [CrossRef]
Lee, Y. , and Shen, W.-Q. , 1987, “Effect of Surface Roughness on the Rewetting Process,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 13(6), pp. 857–861. [CrossRef]
Olek, S. , and Zvirin, Y. , 1988, “The Relation Between the Rewetting Temperature and the Liquid–Solid Contact Angle,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 31(4), pp. 898–902. [CrossRef]
Carbajo, J. J. , 1985, “A Study on the Rewetting Temperature,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 84(1), pp. 21–52. [CrossRef]
Lee, Y. , and Shen, W.-Q. , 1985, “Effect of Coolant Vapor Quality on Rewetting Phenomena,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 28(1), pp. 139–146. [CrossRef]
Sahu, S. K. , Das, P. K. , and Bhattacharyya, S. , 2008, “Rewetting Analysis of Hot Vertical Surfaces With Precursory Cooling by the Heat Balance Integral Method,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130(2), p. 024504. [CrossRef]
Sahu, S. K. , Das, P. K. , and Bhattacharyya, S. , 2010, “An Experimental Investigation on the Quenching of a Hot Vertical Heater by Water Injection at High Flow Rate,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 240(6), pp. 1558–1568. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. J. , Bang, I. C. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. W. , 2007, “Surface Wettability Change During Pool Boiling of Nanofluids and Its Effect on Critical Heat Flux,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(19–20), pp. 4105–4116. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , Kim, J. , and Kim, M. H. , 2006, “Effect of Nanoparticles on CHF Enhancement in Pool Boiling of Nano-Fluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(25–26), pp. 5070–5074. [CrossRef]
You, S. M. , Kim, J. H. , and Kim, K. H. , 2003, “Effect of Nanoparticles on Critical Heat Flux of Water in Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 83(16), pp. 3374–3376. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y. , Li, Q. , and Tie, P. , 2013, “The Effect of Surfactants on Heat Transfer Feature of Nanofluids,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 46, pp. 259–262. [CrossRef]
Chopkar, M. , Das, A. K. , Manna, I. , and Das, P. K. , 2007, “Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of ZrO2–Water Nanofluids From a Flat Surface in a Pool,” Heat Mass Transfer, 44(8), pp. 999–1004. [CrossRef]
Ciloglu, D. , and Bolukbasi, A. , 2011, “The Quenching Behavior of Aqueous Nanofluids Around Rods With High Temperature,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 241(7), pp. 2519–2527. [CrossRef]
Babu, K. , and Prasanna Kumar, T. S. , 2011, “Estimation and Analysis of Surface Heat Flux During Quenching in CNT Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(7), p. 071501. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , DeWitt, G. , McKrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. , 2009, “On the Quenching of Steel and Zircaloy Spheres in Water-Based Nanofluids With Alumina, Silica and Diamond Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(5), pp. 3783–3788. [CrossRef]
Chun, S.-Y. , Bang, I. C. , Choo, Y.-J. , and Song, C.-H. , 2011, “Heat Transfer Characteristics of Si and SiC Nanofluids During a Rapid Quenching and Nanoparticles Deposition Effects,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(5–6), pp. 1217–1223. [CrossRef]
Zhu, D. , Li, X. , Wang, N. , Wang, X. , Gao, J. , and Li, H. , 2009, “Dispersion Behavior and Thermal Conductivity Characteristics of Al2O3–H2O Nanofluids,” Curr. Appl. Phys., 9(1), pp. 131–139. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J. , Huang, J. B. , Tsai, P. S. , and Yang, Y. M. , 2011, “Water-Based Suspensions of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and MEPCM Particles on Convection Effectiveness in a Circular Tube,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(5), pp. 736–748. [CrossRef]
Ueda, T. , and Inoue, M. , 1984, “Rewetting of a Hot Surface by a Falling Liquid Film-Effects of Liquid Subcooling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 27(7), pp. 999–1005. [CrossRef]
Dua, S. S. , and Tien, C. L. , 1978, “An Experimental Falling-Film Rewetting,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21(7), pp. 955–965. [CrossRef]
Zhang, J. , Tanaka, F. , Juarsa, M. , and Mishima, K. , 2003, “Calculation of Boiling Curves During Rewetting of a Hot Vertical Narrow Channel,” International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics, Seoul, pp. 1–14.
Taylor, R. , Coulombe, S. , Otanicar, T. , Phelan, P. , Gunawan, A. , Lv, W. , Rosengarten, G. , Prasher, R. , and Tyagi, H. , 2013, “Small Particles, Big Impacts: A Review of the Diverse Applications of Nanofluids,” J. Appl. Phys., 113(1), p. 011301. [CrossRef]
Taylor, R. A. , Phelan, P. E. , Otanicar, T. P. , Adrian, R. , and Prasher, R. , 2011, “Nanofluid Optical Property Characterization: Towards Efficient Direct Absorption Solar Collectors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6(1), p. 225. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ueda, T. , Tsunenari, S. , and Koyanagi, M. , 1983, “An Investigation of Critical Heat Flux and Surface Rewet in Flow Boiling Systems,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26(8), pp. 1189–1198. [CrossRef]
Chan, A. M. C. , and Banerjee, S. , 1981, “Refilling and Rewetting of a Hot Horizontal Tube—Part 1: Experiments,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 103(2), pp. 281–286. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) photographic representation of the propagation of quench front during rewetting by bottom flooding. (c) Temperature–time response during the rewetting phenomenon.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) XRD, (b) SEM, (c) TEM, and (d) particle size distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of test facility for rewetting in a vertical pipe by bottom flooding

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Thermal images showing the cooling of a portion of the test section during quenching with water at a coolant flow rate 13.33 g/s and (b) comparison of the temperature profiles obtained from the thermograms (in the region of the black box marked area shown in (a)) and the thermocouple brazed to the test section at a position 690 mm from the bottom of the pipe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature–time response for water and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid during rewetting by bottom blooding at coolant flow rate of 13.33 g/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of temperature–time response for water, 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid at two different thermocouple locations during rewetting by bottom blooding at 40.00 g/s coolant flow rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature–time response for water and 0.1 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid at coolant flow rates during rewetting by bottom blooding for the thermocouple located at 690 mm from the bottom

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of (a) temperature–time response and (b) difference between temperature during rewetting with water and nanofluid with time for water, 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid at two extreme coolant injection rates for thermocouple at 690 mm from the bottom

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of thermocouple locations (diametrically opposite across the pipe) on the variation of temperature versus time during rewetting for water, 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid at four different positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Graphical estimation of the time of rewetting from the temperature–time response during the propagation of quench front for estimation of the quench front velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variation of rewetting time as a function of the quench front traversing length from the bottom of the SS pipe at different coolant flow rates for the pipe initially heated to 500 °C during rewetting of (a) water and 0.1 vol. % and (b) 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Estimation of quench front velocity of water between different sets of thermocouples along the length of the SS pipe initially heated to 400 °C at two extreme flow rates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of initial wall temperature of the pipe on the average quench front velocity for water, 0.1 vol. % and 0.3 vol. % Al2O3 dispersed water based nanofluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Variation of inverse quench front velocity with mass flow rate of water with theoretical correlation prediction given by Ref. [8] (inset: comparison of experimental and calculated nondimensional inverse quench velocity (w))

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) Average quench front velocity with coolant injection velocity and (b) experimental (symbols) and predicted (Eq. (7)) (solid line) values of Fq for water and nanofluid at 400 °C initial wall temperature of the pipe

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In