Transient heat conduction in finite thin films subjected to time-varying surface heat flux incidences at both boundaries and internal heat generation is investigated via the dual-phase-lag (DPL) hyperbolic model. Analytical solution of the temperature profiles inside the solid is derived by using the superposition principle and the method of Fourier series expansion in conjunction with the solution structure theorems. For comparison purposes, the classical diffusion, Cattaneo–Vernotte (C–V) model, and simplified thermomass (TM) models are deduced from the generalized DPL model. This is made possible by adjusting the temperature and heat flux relaxation parameters, and offers the opportunity to examine various interconnected non-Fourier conduction heat transfer characteristics including wave and diffusion effects as well as their interrelationship. Details of this process are examined and results are explored in this study.