Research Papers: Conduction

Measurement of High-Performance Thermal Interfaces Using a Reduced Scale Steady-State Tester and Infrared Microscopy

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew N. Smith

U.S. Naval Academy,
Annapolis, MD 21402
e-mail: ansmith@usna.edu

Nicholas R. Jankowski

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Adelphi, MD 20783
e-mail: nicholas.r.jankowski.civ@mail.mil

Lauren M. Boteler

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Adelphi, MD 20783
e-mail: lauren.m.boteler.civ@mail.mil

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received March 16, 2015; final manuscript received September 30, 2015; published online January 20, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Laurent Pilon.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Heat Transfer 138(4), 041301 (Jan 20, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1199; doi: 10.1115/1.4032172 History: Received March 16, 2015; Revised September 30, 2015

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) have reached values approaching the measurement uncertainty of standard ASTM D5470 based testers of approximately ±1 × 10−6 m2 K/W. This paper presents a miniature ASTM-type steady-state tester that was developed to address the resolution limits of standard testers by reducing the heat meter bar thickness and using infrared (IR) thermography to measure the temperature gradient along the heat meter bar. Thermal interfacial resistance measurements on the order of 1 × 10−6 m2 K/W with an order of magnitude improvement in the uncertainty of ±1 × 10−7 m2 K/W are demonstrated. These measurements were made on several TIMs with a thermal resistance as low as 1.14 × 10−6 m2 K/W.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Fig. 1

Chip resistor and the upper and lower heat meter bars positioned on a water-cooled heat sink

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Fig. 2

comsol simulation of the heat flow through the heat meter bars with an interfacial resistance of 1 × 10 −6 m2 K/W including convective heat loss where h = 10 W/m2K

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Fig. 3

Isotherm and heat flux contours for the comsol simulation demonstrate that the heat flow is one-dimensional through the interface

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Fig. 4

Surface temperature near the interface (X = 0) based on the comsol simulation

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Fig. 5

Linear temperature profile across the comsol simulated interface shown for the centerline of the face, the outer corner, and averaged across the Y direction

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Fig. 6

Using comsol simulated surface temperatures resulted in a calculated contact resistance of 0.9997 × 10 −6 m2 K/W which represents a 0.03% error

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Fig. 7

Influence of surface convective losses on the measured contact resistance. Percent error is based on agreement with the contact resistance of 1 × 10 −6 m2 K/W used in the simulation.

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Fig. 8

(a) IR image used to measure the temperatures (°C) of the upper and lower heat meter bars. (b) Portion of the IR image used to determine the contact resistance.

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Fig. 9

Measured contact resistance of (1.61±0.9) × 10 −6 m2 K/W for a 65 μm Cu/AuSn/Cu interface

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Fig. 10

Measured Heat-Spring® contact resistance of (7.9±0.7) × 10 −6 m2 K/W for a contact pressure of 1.4 MPa

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Fig. 11

Measured Arctic Silver® 5 contact resistance of (13.7±1) × 10 −6 m2 K/W for a contact pressure of 1.4 MPa

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Fig. 12

Measured interfacial resistance of Arctic Silver® 5 and 4 mil Heat-Spring® as a function of contact pressure




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