0
Research Papers: Thermal Systems

Transient Modeling of a Capillary Pumped Loop for Terrestrial Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicolas Blet, Yves Bertin, Cyril Romestant

Institut Pprime,
CNRS-ENSMA-Université de Poitiers,
UPR 3346,
1, avenue Clément Ader,
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex 86961, France

Vincent Platel

LaTEP,
Université de Pau,
et des Pays de l'Adour,
Quartier Bastillac,
Tarbes 65000, France

Vincent Ayel

Institut Pprime,
CNRS-ENSMA-Université de Poitiers,
UPR 3346,
1, avenue Clément Ader,
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex 86961, France
e-mail: vincent.ayel@ensma.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 22, 2015; final manuscript received March 1, 2016; published online April 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 138(7), 072802 (Apr 05, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1429; doi: 10.1115/1.4032960 History: Received June 22, 2015; Revised March 01, 2016

Improvement of a new design for a capillary pumped loop (CPL) ensuring high-dissipation electronics cooling in ground transportation has been carried out over recent years. Experimental studies on the hybrid loop, which share some characteristics with the standard CPL and loop heat pipe (LHP), have underlined the sizable potential of this new system, particularly with regard to its upcoming industrial applications. In order to obtain a reliable tool for sizing and design of this CPL for terrestrial applications (CPLTA), the present transient thermohydraulic modeling has been developed. Based on the nodal method, the model's originality consists of transcribing balance equations under electrical networks by analogy. The model's validation is provided by experimental results from a new CPLTA bench with three parallel evaporators. Large-scale numerical evaluation of loop behavior in a gravity field with a single evaporator shall facilitate understanding of the different couplings between loop parts. In addition, modeling of a multi-evaporator loop is introduced and compared with recent experimental results.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Furukawa, M. , Yoshimura, Y. , Tanaka, K. , Fujii, G. , and Machida, T. , 1987, “ Development of a Capillary Loop Pump for Space Applications,” 6th International Heat Pipe Conference, Grenoble, France.
Butler, D. , Ottenstein, L. , and Ku, J. , 1995, “ Flight Testing of the Capillary Pumped Loop Flight Experiment,” SAE Trans., 951566, pp. 750–764.
Yun, S. , Nguyen, T. , Kroliczek, E. , Chalmers, D. , and Fredley, J. , 1996, “ Design and Ambient Testing of the Flight Starter Pump Cold Plate,” SAE Trans., 961433, pp. 1–10.
Ku, J. , Ottenstein, L. , Cheung, K. , Hoang, T. , and Yun, S. , 1998, “ Ground Tests of Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL3) Flight Experiment,” SAE Trans., 981812, pp. 1036–1046.
Figus, C. , Ounougha, L. , Bonzom, P. , Supper, W. , and Puillet, C. , 2003, “ Capillary Fluid Loop Developments in Astrium,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 23(9), pp. 1085–1098. [CrossRef]
Dupont, V. , Oost, S. V. , Barremaecker, L. , and Nicolau, S. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigations on a Methanol Capillary Pumped Loop Equipped With Four Flat Evaporators,” 15th International Heat Pipe Conference, Clemson, SC.
Ayel, V. , Lachassagne, L. , Bertin, Y. , Romestant, C. , and Lossouarn, D. , 2011, “ Experimental Analysis of a Capillary Pumped Loop for Terrestrial Application,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 25(4), pp. 561–571. [CrossRef]
Dupont, V. , Oost, S. V. , Barremaecker, L. , and Nicolau, S. , 2013, “ Railways Qualification Tests of Capillary Pumped Loop on a Train,” 17th International Heat Pipe Conference, Kanpur, India.
Lachassagne, L. , Ayel, V. , Romestant, C. , and Bertin, Y. , 2012, “ Experimental Study of Capillary Pumped Loop for Integrated Power in Gravity Field,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 35, pp. 166–176. [CrossRef]
Kaled, A. , Dutour, S. , Platel, V. , and Lluc, J. , 2015, “ Experimental Study of a Capillary Pumped Loop for Cooling Power Electronics: Response to High Amplitude Heat Load Steps,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 89, pp. 169–179. [CrossRef]
Wang, G. , Mishkinis, D. , and Nikanpour, D. , 2008, “ Capillary Heat Loop Technology: Space Applications and Recent Canadian Activities,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(4), pp. 284–303. [CrossRef]
Ku, J. , Kroliczek, E. , and McIntosh, R. , 1987, “ Analytical Modeling of the Capillary Pumped Loop,” 6th International Heat Pipe Conference, Grenoble, France.
Dickey, J. , and Peterson, G. , 1994, “ Experimental and Analytical Investigation of a Capillary Pumped Loop,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 8(3), pp. 602–607. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T. , Huang, T. , Ku, J. , and Cheung, M. , 1999, “ Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes and Experimental Validation,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13(3), pp. 314–320. [CrossRef]
Chuang, P. , 2003, “ An Improved Steady-State Model of Loop Heat Pipes Based on Experimental and Theoretical Analyses,” Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.
Hamdan, M. , Gerner, F. , and Enderson, H. , 2003, “ Steady-State Model of a Loop Heat Pipe With Coherent Porous Silicon Wick in the Evaporator,” 19th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium, Piscataway, NJ, Mar. 11–13, pp. 88–96.
Adoni, A. , Ambirajan, A. , Jasvanth, V. , Kumar, D. , Dutta, P. , and Srinivasan, K. , 2007, “ Thermohydraulic Modeling of Capillary Pumped Loop and Loop Heat Pipe,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21(2), pp. 410–421. [CrossRef]
Launay, S. , Sartre, V. , and Bonjour, J. , 2008, “ Analytical Model for Characterization of Loop Heat Pipes,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 22(4), pp. 623–631. [CrossRef]
Siedel, B. , Sartre, V. , and Lefèvre, F. , 2013, “ Numerical Investigation of the Thermohydraulic Behavior of a Complete Loop Heat Pipe,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 61(2), pp. 541–553. [CrossRef]
Kaya, T. , and Goldak, J. , 2006, “ Numerical Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in the Capillary Structure of a Loop Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 3211–3220. [CrossRef]
Boubaker, R. , Platel, V. , Berges, A. , Bancelin, M. , and Hannezo, E. , 2015, “ Dynamic Model of Heat and Mass Transfer in Unsaturated Porous Wick of a Capillary Pumped Loop,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 76, pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Mottet, L. , Coquard, T. , and Prat, M. , 2015, “ Three Dimensional Liquid and Vapour Distribution in the Wick of Capillary Evaporators,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 83, pp. 636–651. [CrossRef]
Pouzet, E. , Joly, J. , Platel, V. , Grandpeix, J. , and Butto, C. , 2004, “ Dynamic Response of a Capillary Pumped Loop Subjected to Various Heat Load Transients,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 2293–2316. [CrossRef]
Launay, S. , Platel, V. , Dutour, S. , and Joly, J. , 2007, “ Transient Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes for Oscillating Behavior Study,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21(3), pp. 487–495. [CrossRef]
Kaled, A. , Dutour, S. , Platel, V. , Lachassagne, L. , and Ayel, V. , 2012, “ A Theoretical Analysis of the Transient Behavior of a CPL for Terrestrial Application,” 16th International Heat Pipe Conference, Lyon, France.
Kaya, T. , Perez, R. , Gregori, C. , and Torres, A. , 2008, “ Numerical Simulation of Transient Operation of Loop Heat Pipes,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28, pp. 967–974. [CrossRef]
Vlassov, V. , and Riehl, R. , 2008, “ Mathematical Model of a Loop Heat Pipe With Cylindrical Evaporator and Integrated Reservoir,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28, pp. 942–954. [CrossRef]
Nishikawara, M. , Nagano, H. , and Kaya, T. , 2013, “ Transient Thermo-Fluid Modeling of Loop Heat Pipe and Experimental Validation,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 27(4), pp. 641–647. [CrossRef]
Martina, M. , Todini, E. , and Liu, Z. , 2011, “ Preserving the Dominant Physical Processes in a Lumped Hydrological Model,” J. Hydrol., 399, pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Elliott, N. , Lockerby, D. , and Brodbelt, A. , 2011, “ A Lumped-Parameter Model of the Cerebrospinal System for Investigating Arterial-Driven Flow in Posttraumatic Syringomyelia,” Med. Eng. Phys., 33(7), pp. 874–882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Moscato, F. , Colacino, F. , Arabia, M. , and Guido, A. , 2008, “ Pressure Pulsations in Roller Pumps: A Validated Lumped Parameter Model,” Med. Eng. Phys., 30(9), pp. 1149–1158. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Boyer, H. , Chabriat, J. , Grondin-Perez, B. , Tourrand, C. , and Brau, J. , 1996, “ Thermal Building Simulation and Computer Generation of Nodal Models,” Build. Environ., 31(3), pp. 207–214. [CrossRef]
Ramallo-Gonzalez, A. , Eames, M. , and Coley, D. , 2013, “ Lump Parameter Models for Building Thermal Modeling: An Analytic Approach to Simplifying Complex Multi-Layered Constructions,” Energy Build., 60, pp. 174–184. [CrossRef]
An, C. , and Su, J. , 2011, “ Improved Lumped Models for Transient Combined Convective and Radiative Cooling of Multi-Layer Composite Slabs,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 2508–2517. [CrossRef]
Mahamud, R. , and Park, C. , 2013, “ Spatial-Resolution, Lumped-Capacitance Thermal Model for Cylindrical Li-Ion Batteries Under Higher Biot Number Conditions,” Appl. Math. Model., 37(5), pp. 2787–2801. [CrossRef]
Pontedeiro, A. , Cotta, R. , and Su, J. , 2008, “ Improved Lumped Model for Thermal Analysis of High Burn-Up Nuclear Fuel Rods,” Prog. Nucl. Energy, 50(7), pp. 767–773. [CrossRef]
Olmeda, P. , Dolz, V. , Arnau, F. , and Reyes-Belmonte, M. , 2013, “ Determination of Heat Flows Inside Turbochargers by Means of a One Dimensional Lumped Model,” Math. Comput. Model., 57, pp. 1847–1852. [CrossRef]
Qungang, M. , Yintang, Y. , Yuejin, L. , and Xinzhang, J. , 2005, “ Optimal Cascade Lumped Model of Deep Submicron One-Chip Interconnect With Distributed Parameters,” Microelectr. Eng., 77, pp. 310–318. [CrossRef]
Rahimpour, E. , Rashtchi, V. , and Shahrouzi, H. , 2012, “ Applying Artificial Optimization Methods for Transformer Model Reduction of Lumped Parameter Models,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., 84(1), pp. 100–108. [CrossRef]
Lachassagne, L. , Bertin, Y. , Ayel, V. , and Romestant, C. , 2013, “ Steady-State Modeling of Capillary Pumped Loop in Gravity Field,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 64, pp. 62–80. [CrossRef]
Delalandre, N. , Ayel, V. , and Salat, J. , 2011, “ Transient Thermohydraulic Modeling of Capillary Pumped Loop,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2587.
Blet, N. , Delalandre, N. , Ayel, V. , Bertin, Y. , Romestant, C. , and Platel, V. , 2012, “ Transient Thermohydraulic Modeling of Two-Phase Fluid Systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 395, p. 012177. [CrossRef]
Blet, N. , Ayel, V. , Bertin, Y. , Romestant, C. , and Platel, V. , 2013, “ Transient Modeling of cpl for Terrestrial Applications, Part B: Reservoir Modeling Improvement,” 17th International Heat Pipe Conference, Kanpur, India.
Blet, N. , Ayel, V. , Bertin, Y. , Romestant, C. , and Platel, V. , 2013, “ Transient Modeling of cpl for Terrestrial Applications, Part A: Network Concept and Influence of Gravity on the CPL Behavior,” 17th International Heat Pipe Conference, Kanpur, India.
Shah, M. , 2009, “ An Improved and Extended General Correlation for Heat Transfer During Condensation in Plain Tubes,” HVAC R Res., 15(5), pp. 889–913. [CrossRef]
Blet, N. , Bertin, Y. , Ayel, V. , Romestant, C. , and Platel, V. , 2016, “ Experimental Analysis of a Capillary Pumped Loop for Terrestrial Applications With Several Evaporators in Parallel,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 93, pp. 1304–1312. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

CPLTA design and associated (P,T) diagram in operation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Fluid nodes and boundary conditions of the CERBERE modeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Meshes and variables locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The four networks of lines with thermohydraulic couplings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The four networks of reservoir and evaporator models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Thermal conductance at evaporator Gev

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Thermal model of reservoir and variables locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

CERBERE loop design and instrumentation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Identified conductance at reservoir Gl,r for each single evaporator (Tref=70 °C and TII=20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Identified conductance at evaporator Gev for each single evaporator (Tref=70 °C and TII=20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Steady-state comparison between experimental and numerical results: temperatures (evaporator n∘1, Φev = 1000 W, Tref = 70 °C and TII = 20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Steady-state comparison between experimental and numerical results: mass flow rates (evaporator n∘1, Tref = 70 °C and TII = 20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Steady-state comparison between experimental and numerical results: pressure drops (evaporator n∘1, Tref = 70 °C and TII = 20 °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Transient comparison between experimental and numerical results: heat power increase Φev from 400 W to 1000 W (evaporator n∘2, Tref = 70 °C and TII = 20 °C): (a) evaporator inlet mass flow rate, (b) condenser outlet mass flow rate, (c) reservoir pressure, (d) evaporator pressures, (e) evaporator inlet wall temperature, and (f) evaporator body average temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Transient comparison between experimental and numerical results: heat power decrease Φev from 1000 W to 400 W (evaporator n∘2, Tref = 70 °C and TII = 20 °C): (a) evaporator inlet mass flow rate, (b) condenser outlet mass flow rate, (c) evaporator pressures, and (d) evaporator body average temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Thermal model of reservoir with three evaporators in parallel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Heat power solicitations during a comparative test with three evaporators

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Comparative test with three parallel evaporators in operation (reservoir 70 °C and condenser 20 °C): (a) mass flow rates, (b) pressures at evaporators, (c) temperatures at evaporator inlets, and (d) temperatures at evaporator bodies

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In