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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Numerical and Experimental Investigation Into the Effects of Nanoparticle Mass Fraction and Bubble Size on Boiling Heat Transfer of TiO2–Water Nanofluid

[+] Author and Article Information
Cong Qi

School of Electric Power Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: qicong@cumt.edu.cn

Yongliang Wan

School of Electric Power Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: cumtwyl0516@163.com

Lin Liang

School of Electric Power Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: lianglin@cumt.edu.cn

Zhonghao Rao

School of Electric Power Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: raozhonghao@cumt.edu.cn

Yimin Li

School of Electric Power Engineering,
China University of Mining and Technology,
Xuzhou 221116, China
e-mail: liyimin009@163.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 10, 2015; final manuscript received April 5, 2016; published online May 3, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Amy Fleischer.

J. Heat Transfer 138(8), 081503 (May 03, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1592; doi: 10.1115/1.4033353 History: Received September 10, 2015; Revised April 05, 2016

Considering mass transfer and energy transfer between liquid phase and vapor phase, a mixture model for boiling heat transfer of nanofluid is established. In addition, an experimental installation of boiling heat transfer is built. The boiling heat transfer of TiO2–water nanofluid is investigated by numerical and experimental methods, respectively. Thermal conductivity, viscosity, and boiling bubble size of TiO2–water nanofluid are experimentally investigated, and the effects of different nanoparticle mass fractions, bubble sizes and superheat on boiling heat transfer are also discussed. It is found that the boiling bubble size in TiO2–water nanofluid is only one-third of that in de-ionized water. It is also found that there is a critical nanoparticle mass fraction (wt.% = 2%) between enhancement and degradation for TiO2–water nanofluid. Compared with water, nanofluid enhances the boiling heat transfer coefficient by 77.7% when the nanoparticle mass fraction is lower than 2%, while it reduces the boiling heat transfer by 30.3% when the nanoparticle mass fraction is higher than 2%. The boiling heat transfer coefficients increase with the superheat for water and nanofluid. A mathematic correlation between heat flux and superheat is obtained in this paper.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of boiling cavity

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Fig. 2

Temperature nephogram at different superheat, wt.% = 0% (a) dt = 4.6 °C, (b) dt = 5.5 °C, (c) dt = 6.6 °C, (d) dt = 7.8 °C, and (e) dt = 9.1 °C

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Fig. 3

Velocity vector of water phase at different superheat, wt.% = 0%, →0.06 cm/s (a) dt = 4.6 °C, (b) dt = 5.5 °C (c) dt = 6.6 °C (d) dt = 7.8 °C, and (e) dt = 9.1 °C

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Fig. 4

Comparison of simulative heat flux for water between this paper and literature at different superheat

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Fig. 7

Experimental installation of boiling heat transfer

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Fig. 6

Velocity vector of nanofluid with wt.% = 1% at different superheat, →0.05 cm/s (a) dt = 4.6 °C, (b) dt = 5.5 °C, (c) dt = 6.6 °C, (d) dt = 7.8 °C, and (e) dt = 9.1 °C

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Fig. 5

Temperature nephogram at different superheat, wt.% = 1% (a) dt = 4.6 °C, (b) dt = 5.5 °C, (c) dt = 6.6 °C, (d) dt = 7.8 °C, and (e) dt = 9.1 °C

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Fig. 16

Heat flux of water and nanofluid at different superheat

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Fig. 17

Boiling heat transfer coefficient at different superheat (a) absolute value and (b) ratio between nanofluid and water

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Fig. 8

Comparison of experimental heat flux between de-ionized water and literature

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Fig. 9

Procedure of preparing nanofluid by two-step method

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Fig. 10

Comparison between TiO2–water nanofluid before laying up and after laying up for 24 hrs, (a) before laying up and (b) after laying up for 24 hrs

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Fig. 11

Thermal conductivity of TiO2–water nanofluid

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Fig. 12

Viscosity of TiO2–water nanofluid at different shear rates

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Fig. 13

Schematic of bubble growth and departing from the wall in de-ionized water: (a) 0 ms, (b) 125 ms, (c) 250 ms, (d) 500 ms, (e) 750 ms, (f) 1000 ms, (g) 1250 ms, (h) 1500 ms, (i) 1750 ms, (j) 2000 ms, (k), 2125 ms, (l) 2250 ms, (m) 2260 ms, (n) 2265 ms, (o) 2270 ms, (p) 2275 ms, (q) 2280 ms, (r) 2285 ms, (s) 2290 ms, (t) 2295 ms, (u) 2300 ms, (v) 2305 ms, (w) 2310 ms, and (x) 2315 ms

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Fig. 14

Boiling bubble sizes in de-ionized water: (a) 0 ms, (b) 4 ms, (c) 8 ms, and (d) 16 ms

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Fig. 15

Boiling bubble sizes in TiO2–water nanofluid: (a) 0 ms, (b) 4 ms, (c) 8 ms, and (d) 16 ms

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