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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Analysis of Nonisothermal Rarefied Gas Flow in Diverging Microchannels for Low-Pressure Microresistojets

[+] Author and Article Information
Daduí C. Guerrieri

Space System Engineering,
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 12629, The Netherlands
e-mail: D.CordeiroGuerrieri@tudelft.nl

Angelo Cervone

Space System Engineering,
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 12629, The Netherlands
e-mail: A.Cervone@tudelft.nl

Eberhard Gill

Chair of Space System Engineering
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Delft University of Technology,
Delft 12629, The Netherlands
e-mail: E.K.A.Gill@tudelft.nl

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received December 7, 2015; final manuscript received June 10, 2016; published online July 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Alan McGaughey.

J. Heat Transfer 138(11), 112403 (Jul 19, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1761; doi: 10.1115/1.4033955 History: Received December 07, 2015; Revised June 10, 2016

Heat transfer and fluid flow through different microchannel geometries in the transitional regime (rarefied flow) are analyzed by means of direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. Four types of three-dimensional microchannels, intended to be used as expansion slots in microresistojet concepts, are investigated using nitrogen as working fluid. The main purpose is to understand the impact of the channel geometry on the exit velocity and the transmission coefficient, parameters which are well known to affect directly the thruster performance. Although this analysis can be applied in principle to several possible microfluidics scenarios, particular focus is given to its application in the field of space propulsion for micro-, nano-, and picosatellites, for which the requirements ask for low thrust levels from some micronewtons to a few millinewtons and moderate specific impulse, as well as a low power consumption in the order of a few watts. Analysis shows that the thrust produced by one single microchannel can be increased by about 480% with a careful selection of the channel geometry, decreasing at the same time the specific impulse by just 5%, with a power consumption decrease of more than 66.7%.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 3

Pressure along the channel centerline: comparison of the current DSMC code with the analytical solution from Ref. [14]

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Fig. 2

Scheme of the four configurations analyzed: (a) baseline microchannel, (b) entirely divergent microchannel, (c) second-half divergent microchannel, and (d) first-half divergent microchannel

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Fig. 1

Scheme of the baseline microchannel modeling (case 1, dimensions in micrometer). The plenum boundary condition is represented by the lines on the left side, the channel wall by the lines in the middle, the space by the lines on the right side, and the dashed line represents the symmetric plane boundary conditions.

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Fig. 11

Mean pressure along the channel, second-half divergent microchannel (case 3), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 12

Mean temperature along the channel, second-half divergent microchannel (case 3), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 13

Temperature (a) and Mach number (b) maps for the second-half divergent microchannel (case 3), for a divergent angle of 25 deg, plenum pressure of 150 Pa, and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 14

Transmission coefficient and exit velocity for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K, second-half divergent microchannel (case 3)

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Fig. 15

Mean pressure along the channel, first-half divergent microchannel (case 4), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 16

Mean temperature along the channel, first-half divergent microchannel (case 4), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 17

Temperature (a) and Mach number (b) maps for the first-half divergent microchannel (case 4), for a divergent angle of 25 deg, plenum pressure of 150 Pa, and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 18

Transmission coefficient and exit velocity for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K, first-half divergent microchannel (case 4)

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Fig. 19

Velocity profile along the y-axis at the channel exit (x = 500 μm), for all the cases, with a divergent angle of 25 deg

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Fig. 20

Thrust versus specific impulse for different values of the plenum pressure and wall temperature, baseline microchannel (case 1)

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Fig. 21

Specific energy versus specific impulse for different values of the plenum pressure and wall temperature, baseline microchannel (case 1)

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Fig. 22

Thrust and specific impulse as functions of the divergent angle, for plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K (cases 2–4)

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Fig. 23

Specific energy and specific impulse as functions of the divergent angle, for plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K (cases 2–4)

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Fig. 7

Mean pressure along the channel, entirely divergent microchannel (case 2), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 8

Mean temperature along the channel, entire divergent microchannel (case 2), for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 9

Temperature (a) and Mach number (b) maps for the entirely divergent microchannel (case 2), for a divergent angle of 25 deg, plenum pressure of 150 Pa, and wall temperature of 573 K

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Fig. 10

Transmission coefficient and exit velocity for different divergent angles at a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K, entirely divergent microchannel (case 2)

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Fig. 4

Mean pressure along the channel (normalized) for the baseline microchannel (case 1), for different plenum pressures and wall channel temperatures

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Fig. 5

Mean temperature along the channel (normalized) for the baseline microchannel (case 1), for different plenum pressures and wall channel temperatures

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Fig. 6

Temperature (a) and Mach number (b) maps for a plenum pressure of 150 Pa and channel wall temperature of 573 K, for the baseline microchannel (case 1)

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