In the present research, a new and straightforward mathematical model, named augmented state-space method, is introduced to solve the heat conduction equation for a multilayered orthotropic hollow cylinder with bonding imperfection in the presence of heat source. Since such problems including heat source are inherently inhomogeneous and complex, augmented state-space method converts these inhomogeneous equations into homogeneous ones. The transient solution will be achieved by present method based on laminate approximation theory in the Laplace domain, and then the solutions obtained are retrieved into the time domain by applying the numerical Laplace transform inversion. All material properties can be considered to vary continuously within the cylinder along the radial direction with arbitrary grading pattern. Based on the proposed method, the solution of heat conduction problem can be also obtained for general boundary conditions which may be included various combinations of arbitrary temperature, flux, or convection. Due to lack of any data on the transient thermal analysis corresponding to problems with imperfect bonds in the cylindrical coordinate system comparison is carried out with the available results for the three-layer semi-circular annular region with perfect bonds in the literature. Finally, the influence of orthotropy and interface imperfection on the distribution of the temperature field for three-layer hollow cylinder, in which the second layer is made of orthotropic functionally graded material (FGM), will be visualized.