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Research Papers: Melting and Solidification

Simultaneous Spreading and Solidification of an Impacting Molten Droplet With Substrate Remelting

[+] Author and Article Information
Vimal Ramanuj

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX 76019
e-mail: vimal.ramanuj@mavs.uta.edu

Albert Y. Tong

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Texas at Arlington,
Arlington, TX 76019
e-mail: tong@uta.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 23, 2015; final manuscript received September 21, 2016; published online November 16, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 139(3), 032301 (Nov 16, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1670; doi: 10.1115/1.4034813 History: Received October 23, 2015; Revised September 21, 2016

The nonisothermal phase-change behavior of droplet deposition on a substrate has been studied. The governing equation for the flow field is solved using a finite-volume scheme with a two-step projection method on a fixed computational grid. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) method is used to track the free surface, and the continuum surface force (CSF) method is used to model the surface tension. An enthalpy formulation with a porosity model is adopted for solving the energy equation. A comparison with published experimental findings has been done to validate the numerical model. The effects of convection terms in the energy equation are examined, and droplet spreading and solidification along with substrate remelting have been analyzed. A parametric study relating the effects of substrate preheating and impact velocity on remelting, cooling rate, spreading, and solidification has also been carried out. It has been observed that the flow field within the droplet has a significant effect on the overall deposition process.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Staggered grid arrangement

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Fig. 2

Flow chart for enthalpy formulation

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Fig. 3

Computational domain

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Fig. 4

Remelting depth versus time

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Fig. 5

Net heat flux and solidus location versus time

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Fig. 6

Comparison of temperature variations

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Fig. 7

Cooling rates and SDAS along the droplet–substrate interface

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Fig. 10

Solidification front and isotherms at the instant of maximum remelt [20]

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Fig. 8

Isotherms (left) and streamlines (right) at various time instants

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Fig. 9

Axial temperature gradients at the droplet–substrate interface at various time instants

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Fig. 11

Effect of substrate preheating on remelting depth

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Fig. 12

Effect of substrate preheating on cooling rates

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Fig. 13

Effect of substrate preheating on spreading and solidification times

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Fig. 14

Effect of substrate preheating on spread factor

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Fig. 15

Effect of impact velocity on remelting depth

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Fig. 16

Effect of impact velocity on cooling rates

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Fig. 17

Effect of impact velocity on spreading and solidification times

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Fig. 18

Effect of impact velocity on spread factor

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Fig. 19

Grid distribution

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Fig. 20

Convergence in remelting depth and temperature at free surface

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Fig. 21

Convergence in free surface and solidification front

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