In this paper, characteristics of turbulent flow and convective heat transfer of supercritical China RP-3 kerosene in a horizontal straight circular tube are studied experimentally, and the validity of Chilton–Colburn analogy is examined. Using a three-stage heating system, experiments are conducted at a fuel temperature range of 650–800 K, a pressure range of 3–4 MPa, and a Reynolds number range of 1 × 105–3.5 × 105. The Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient are calculated through control volume analysis proposed in this paper. Heat transfer enhancement and deterioration were observed in the experiments as well as the similar change of skin friction coefficient. The present results show that Chilton–Colburn analogy is also valid for turbulent flow and heat transfer of supercritical kerosene in horizontal straight circular tubes.