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Research Papers: Bio-Heat and Mass Transfer

Assessment of Thermal Damage During Skin Tumor Treatment Using Thermal Wave Model: A Realistic Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
A. K. Verma

School of Mechanical Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar,
Bhubaneswar 752050, India
e-mail: akv11@iitbbs.ac.in

P. Rath

Mem. ASME
School of Mechanical Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar,
Bhubaneswar 752050, India
e-mail: prath@iitbbs.ac.in

S. K. Mahapatra

Mem. ASME
School of Mechanical Sciences,
Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar,
Bhubaneswar 752050, India
e-mail: swarup@iitbbs.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Presented at the 2016 ASME 5th Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference. Paper No. MNHMT2016-6464.Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 15, 2016; final manuscript received February 16, 2017; published online March 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert D. Tzou.

J. Heat Transfer 139(5), 051102 (Mar 07, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1389; doi: 10.1115/1.4036015 History: Received June 15, 2016; Revised February 16, 2017

In this study, a three-layered skin tissue has been modeled to assess the heat transfer characteristics in laser skin tumor–tissue interaction. A finite-volume-based two-dimensional numerical bioheat transfer model has been put together to study the damage prediction of healthy tissues by considering both Fourier and non-Fourier laws. The combination of the bioheat transfer equation with Fourier law forms the parabolic equation (Pennes model) and with the non-Fourier equation forms the hyperbolic equation (thermal wave model). In this paper, the laser source is provided on the outer layer of the skin to dismantle the undesired tumor region exemplified as inhomogeneity (tumor) present in the intermediate layer. Heat input through the laser source is on until it reaches the tumor-killing criteria. The heat transport equation has been discretized by the finite volume method (FVM). The finite-volume-based numerical model is developed in such a way that the non-Fourier model predictions can be obtained through conventional Fourier-based solver. The central difference scheme is adopted for discretizing the spatial derivative terms. An implicit scheme is applied to treat the transient terms in the model. For few cases of the hyperbolic problems, certain limitation for a chosen implicit scheme has also been addressed in this paper. The results are validated with the existing literatures. The evaluated results are based on both the Fourier and the non-Fourier model, to investigate the temperature distribution and thermal damage by ensuring irreversible thermal damage in the whole tumor region placed in the dermis layer. Thermal damage of the healthy tissue is found to be more in the time scale of the thermal wave model.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic representation of the physical domain (a) and computational domain (b)

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Fig. 2

(a) Validation with the experimental results provided by Mitra et al. [2], (b) validation of the 1D work with Ref. [18] at x=0.00208 m, for Δt=0.1 s and oscillated solution for Δt=0.01 s, and (c) validation of the 2D code with Ref. [31] for transient temperature distribution along the symmetry line with heat source 100×t  W/m2 inside the tumor region

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Fig. 3

(a) Grid-independent control volume test along the symmetry line (threshold temperature reaching time) and (b) time-independent test at the top surface center location of the whole domain

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Fig. 4

Effect of thermal wave propagation on dimensionless temperature distribution for dimensionless heat flux qo*=6 along the lines A, B, C, and D around tumor cells (at threshold temperature reaching time)

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Fig. 5

Effect of thermal wave propagation on dimensionless temperature distribution for dimensionless heat flux qo*=18 along the lines A, B, C, and D around tumor cells (at threshold temperature reaching time)

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Fig. 6

Dimensionless heat flux versus dimensionless time (threshold temperature reaching time)

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Fig. 7

At dimensionless time t*=0.03, indices a and b correspond to Vn=0  and 0.25, and 1, 2, and 3 correspond to dimensionless temperature distribution, dimensionless thermal damage parameter, and damaged region, respectively

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Fig. 8

At dimensionless time t*=0.05, indices a and b correspond to Vn=0  and 0.25, and 1, 2, and 3 correspond to dimensionless temperature distribution, dimensionless thermal damage parameter, and damaged region, respectively

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Fig. 9

At threshold temperature reaching time inside the tumor cell, indices a and b correspond to Vn=0  and 0.25, and 1, 2, and 3 correspond to dimensionless temperature distribution, dimensionless thermal damage parameter, and damaged region, respectively

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