Technical Brief

Experimental Verification of a Prediction Model for Pool Boiling Enhanced by the Electrohydrodynamic Effect and Surface Wettability

[+] Author and Article Information
Ichiro Kano

Graduate School of Science and Engineering,
Yamagata University,
Yonezawa 992-8510,
Yamagata, Japan
e-mail: kano@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

Naoki Okamoto

Graduate School of Science and Engineering,
Yamagata University,
Yonezawa 992-8510,
Yamagata, Japan
e-mail: tah58620@st.yamagata-u.ac.jp

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 17, 2015; final manuscript received December 28, 2016; published online April 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Heat Transfer 139(8), 084501 (Apr 11, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1659; doi: 10.1115/1.4036040 History: Received October 17, 2015; Revised December 28, 2016

Enhancing of boiling heat transfer by combining the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effect and surface wettability has been shown to remove the high heat fluxes from electrical devices such as laser diodes, light emitting diodes, and central processing units. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Our previous studies on the critical heat flux (CHF) of pool boiling have shown that CHF greatly increases with the application of an electric field and that the wall temperature can be decreased to a level with the safe operation of the electrical devices by using a low contact angle with the boiling surface. To verify the earlier prediction model, CHF enhancement by changing the contact angle with the boiling surface and by the application of an electric field was investigated. A fluorinated dielectric liquid (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan, AE-3000) was selected as the working fluid. To allow the contact angle between the boiling surface and the dielectric liquid to be changed, several different materials (Cu, Cr, NiB, Sn) and a surface coated with a mixture of 1.5 and 5 μm diamond particles were used as boiling surfaces. The CHFs at different contact angles were 20.5–26.9 W/cm2, corresponding to 95–125% of that for a polished Cu surface (21.5 W/cm2). Upon application of a −5 kV/mm electric field to the microstructured surface (the mixture of 1.5 μm and 5 μm diamond particles), a CHF of 99 W/cm2 at a superheat of 33.5 K was obtained. Based on this experimental evidence, we normalized the CHF and contact angle using our previously developed hydrodynamic instability model and semi-empirical model derived from the interfacial area density close to the boiling surface. This procedure allowed us to develop a general model that predicted CHF well, including the CHF for the de-ionized (DI) water.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


BAR-Chohen, A. , Arik, M. , and Ohadi, M. , 2006, “ Direct Liquid Cooling of High Flux Micro and Nano Electric Components,” Proc. IEEE, 94(8), pp. 1549–1570. [CrossRef]
Lloveras, P. , Salvat-Pujol, F. , Truskinovsky, L. , and Vives, E. , 2012, “ Boiling Crisis as a Critical Phenomenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 108(21), p. 215701. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wang, C. H. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1993, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(3), pp. 659–669. [CrossRef]
O'Connor, J. P. , You, S. M. , and Price, D. C. , 1995, “ A Dielectric Surface Coating Technique to Enhance Boiling Heat Transfer From High Power Microelectronics,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol., Part A, 18(3), pp. 656–663. [CrossRef]
Das, A. K. , Das, P. K. , and Saha, P. , 2007, “ Nucleate Boiling of Water From Plain and Structures Surfaces,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 31(8), pp. 967–977. [CrossRef]
Jones, B. J. , McHale, J. P. , and Garimella, S. , 2009, “ The Influence of Surface Roughness on Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 131(12), p. 121009. [CrossRef]
Furberg, R. , and Palm, B. , 2011, “ Boiling Heat Transfer on a Dendritic and Micro-Porous Surface in R134a and FC-72,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(16), pp. 3595–3603. [CrossRef]
Dhillon, N. S. , Buongiorno, J. , and Varanasi, K. K. , 2015, “ Critical Heat Flux Maxima During Boiling Crisis on Textured Surface,” Nat. Commun., 6, pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Jones, T. B. , 1978, “ Electrohydrodynamically Enhanced Heat Transfer in Liquids: A Review,” Adv. Heat Transfer, 14, pp. 107–148.
Allen, P. H. G. , and Karayiannis, T. G. , 1994, “ Electrohydrodynamic Enhancement of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow,” Heat Recovery Syst. CHP, 15(5), pp. 389–423. [CrossRef]
Laohalertdecha, S. , Naphon, P. , and Wongwises, S. , 2007, “ A Review of Electrohydrodynamic Enhancement of Heat Transfer,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 11(5), pp. 858–876. [CrossRef]
Hristov, Y. , Zhao, D. , Kenning, D. B. R. , Sefiane, K. , and Karayiannis, T. G. , 2009, “ A Study of Nucleate Boiling and Critical Heat Flux With EHD Enhancement,” Heat Mass Transfer, 45(7), pp. 999–1017. [CrossRef]
Zagdoudi, M. C. , and Lallemand, M. , 2001, “ Nucleate Pool Boiling Under the DC Electric Field,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 14(3), pp. 157–180. [CrossRef]
Kano, I. , and Takahashi, Y. , 2013, “ Effects of Electric Field Generated by Microsized Electrode on Pool Boiling,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 49(6), pp. 2382–2387. [CrossRef]
Pearson, M. R. , and Seyed-Yagoobi, J. , 2013, “ EHD Conduction-Driven Enhancement of Critical Heat Flux in Pool Boiling,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 49(4), pp. 1808–1916. [CrossRef]
Landau, L. D. , Lifshitz, E. M. , and Pitaevskii, L. P. , 1984, Electrohydrodynamics of Continuous Media, 2nd ed., Vol. 8, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, pp. 59–64.
Panofsky, W. K. H. , 1962, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd ed., Dover, Mineola, NY, pp. 111–116.
Stuetzer, O. M. , 1959, “ Ion Drag Pressure Generation,” J. Appl. Phys., 30(7), pp. 984–994. [CrossRef]
Pickard, W. F. , 1963, “ Ion-Drag Pumping—I: Theory,” J. Appl. Phys., 34(2), pp. 246–250. [CrossRef]
Pickard, W. F. , 1963, “ Ion-Drag Pumping—II: Experiment,” J. Appl. Phys., 34(2), pp. 251–258. [CrossRef]
Kano, I. , Higuchi, Y. , and Chika, T. , 2013, “ Development of Boiling Type Cooling System Using Electrostatics Effect,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(9), p. 091301. [CrossRef]
Kano, I. , 2014, “ Effect of Electric Field Distribution Generated in a Microspace on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 136(10), p. 101501. [CrossRef]
Kano, I. , 2014, “ Pool Boiling Enhanced by Electric Field Distribution in Microsized Space,” 4th Micro and Nano Flows Conference (MNF), London, Sept. 7–10, pp. 1–4
Kano, I. , 2015, “ Pool Boiling Enhancement by Electrohydrodynamic Force and Diamond Coated Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(9), p. 091006. [CrossRef]
Zuber, N. , 1958, “ On the Stability of Boiling Heat Transfer,” Trans. ASME, 80, pp. 711–720.
Nishio, S. , Gotoh, T. , and Nagai, N. , 1997, “ Observation of Boiling Structures in High Heat-Flux Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(21), pp. 3191–3201. [CrossRef]
Lüttch, T. , Marquardt, W. , Buchholz, M. , and Auracher, H. , 2004, “ Towards a Unifying Heat Transfer Correlation for the Entire Boiling Curve,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43(12), pp. 1125–1139. [CrossRef]
Darabi, J. , Ohadi, M. M. , and DeVoe, D. , 2001, “ An Electrohydrodynamic Polarization Micropump for Electronic Cooling,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 10(1), pp. 98–106. [CrossRef]
Darabi, J. , and Ekula, K. , 2003, “ Development of a Chip-Integrated Micro Cooling Device,” Microelectron. J., 34(1), pp. 1067–1074. [CrossRef]
Moghaddam, S. , and Ohadi, M. M. , 2005, “ Effect of Electrode Geometry on Performance of an EHD Thin-Film Evaporator,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 14(5), pp. 978–986. [CrossRef]
Hahne, E. , and Diesselhorst, T. , 1978, “ Hydrodynamic and Surface Effects on the Peak Heat Flux in Pool Boiling,” 6th International Heat Transfer Conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, Aug. 7–11, Vol. 1, pp. 209–214.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Vapor removal configuration through a slit electrode [22]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of experimental facility: ① top of boiling chamber, ② middle of boiling chamber, ③ bottom of boiling chamber, ④ Teflon block, ⑤ copper block, ⑥ main heater, ⑦ condenser, ⑧ preheater, ⑨ subheater, ⑩ electrode, high DC supply, resistance (100kΩ), Ⓣ T-type thermocouple, Ⓟ pressure transducer, and Ⓥ voltmeter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SEM image of a boiling surface electrically deposited with 1.5 and 5 μm diamond particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Electrode geometry. This electrode was designed using the basic concept of the previous paper [22].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boiling curves for various surface materials without electrode

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

CHFs for various surface materials as functions of contact angle; no electrode is present

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Normalized CHFs as functions of contact angle. Contact angle of ϕ1,AE3000 at normalized CHF = 1 is 15 deg, and ϕ1,Water is 27.5 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized CHFs as functions of normalized contact angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

HTCs for polished Cu surfaces with application of electric fields

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effects of electric field on boiling curves for polished Cu surface with application of electric fields

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Boiling curves for 1.5 and 5 μm diamond-particle surfaces with application of electric fields

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

HTCs for 1.5 and 5 μm diamond-particle surface with application of electric fields

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Normalized CHFs as functions of normalized contact angle




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In