Research Papers: Jets, Wakes, and Impingment Cooling

General Characterization of Jet Impingement Array Heat Sinks With Interspersed Fluid Extraction Ports for Uniform High-Flux Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander S. Rattner

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
236A Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: Alex.Rattner@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 20, 2016; final manuscript received February 16, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Amy Fleischer.

J. Heat Transfer 139(8), 082201 (Apr 11, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1678; doi: 10.1115/1.4036090 History: Received October 20, 2016; Revised February 16, 2017

In conventional jet impingement array heat sinks, all the spent coolant is extracted from component edges, resulting in cross-flow interference and nonuniform heat transfer. Jet impingement arrays with interspersed fluid extraction ports can reduce cross-flow, improving heat transfer uniformity and reducing pumping loads. While this configuration offers technical advantages, limited pressure drop and heat transfer data are available. In this investigation, simulations are performed for laminar single-phase jet impingement arrays with interspersed fluid extraction ports over varying flow rates (Rej = 20–500), fluid transport properties (Pr = 1–100), and geometries (jet pitch to diameter ratios of 1.8–7.1 and jet diameter to gap height ratios of 0.1–4.0). The simulation approach is validated for isolated jet impingement, and grid sensitivity studies are performed to quantify numerical uncertainty. Over 1000 randomized cases are evaluated to develop new correlations for Nusselt number and pressure-drop k-factors. Conjugate heat transfer studies are performed to compare heat sinks (5 × 5 mm heated, 500 W m−2 heat flux) employing jet arrays with interspersed fluid extraction ports, microchannels, and jet arrays with edge fluid extraction. The design with jet arrays with interspersed fluid extraction ports yields lower average temperatures, improved temperature uniformity, and modest pressure drops. This study provides new data for jet impingement thermal management and highlights the technical potential of configurations with interspersed fluid extraction ports.

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Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of 45 deg wedge single jet impingement domain, (b) representative mesh with average cell size Δ = 42 μm, and (c) representative velocity magnitude plot on symmetry plane surface for Rej = 250

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Fig. 3

Comparison of average stagnation-region Nusselt number (Nu0) from simulation studies with predictions from the correlation of Ref. [25] (Pr = 6.5)

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Fig. 4

(a) Top-down and cutaway side views of jet impingement array with interspersed fluid extraction ports, indicating dimensions and repeating unit cell, (b) rendering of unit cell, and (c) representative simulation mesh (Δ = 6.7 μm)

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Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of unit cell indicating edge studied in mesh sensitivity analysis. Local Nusselt number (Nux) along edge for (b) Rej = 20 and (c) Rej = 500.

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Fig. 8

Variation of pressure-drop k-factor with geometry (p/Dj, th/Dj) at Rej = 20 (a), 125 (b), and 500 (c)

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Fig. 9

Variation of average target surface Nusselt number with Reynolds number and Prandtl number for baseline geometry. Representative power law fit presented for reference.

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Fig. 6

Trend of pressure-drop k-factor with Rej for baseline geometry (p/Dj = 1.77, th/Dj = 1.0)

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Fig. 7

Velocity magnitude plots on shaded surface for baseline geometry (p/Dj = 1.77, th/Dj = 1.0), indicating increasing flow constriction from injection to extraction port

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Fig. 1

Top-down and cutaway side view of (a) jet impingement heat sink with conventional edge extraction of fluid and (b) jet impingement heat sink with interspersed fluid extraction ports

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Fig. 13

Temperature distributions on heat spreader bases for (a) jet impingement array with interspersed fluid extraction ports, (b) microchannel heat sink (scaled to fit figure), and (c) conventional co-flow jet impingement heat sink (th = 200 μm)

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Fig. 10

Comparison between simulation results and correlation predictions for (a) pressure-drop k-factor and (b) average target surface Nusselt number

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Fig. 11

Comparison between correlation predictions for Nusselt number and simulation results from Natarajan and Bezama [17] and the experimentally derived correlation of Brunschwiler et al. [21] (known to underpredict simulation Nusselt numbers because of parasitic heat transfer in distribution plate)

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Fig. 12

Schematics and unit-cell domains for three considered heat sinks: (a) jet impingement array with interspersed fluid extraction ports, (b) microchannel heat sink, and (c) conventional co-flow jet impingement heat sink (solid walls shaded in unit-cell domains)



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