Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Nanocapillarity in Graphene Oxide Laminate and Its Effect on Critical Heat Flux

[+] Author and Article Information
Ji Min Kim

Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering,
San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu,
Pohang 37673, Kyungbuk, South Korea
e-mail: erskarin@postech.ac.kr

Ji Hoon Kim

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Incheon National University,
Songdo 1(il)-dong, Yeonsu-gu,
Incheon 22012, South Korea
e-mail: Kimjiihoon123@inu.ac.kr

Moo Hwan Kim

Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering,
San 31, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu,
Pohang 37673, Kyungbuk, South Korea
e-mail: mhkim@postech.ac.kr

Massoud Kaviany

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: kaviany@umich.edu

Ho Seon Ahn

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Incheon National University,
Songdo 1(il)-dong, Yeonsu-gu,
Incheon 22012, South Korea
e-mail: hsahn@inu.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 19, 2016; final manuscript received March 9, 2017; published online April 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ronggui Yang.

J. Heat Transfer 139(8), 082402 (Apr 25, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1525; doi: 10.1115/1.4036282 History: Received August 19, 2016; Revised March 09, 2017

The nanocapillarity phenomenon involves ultralow frictional flow of water molecules through nanoscale channels, and here we study this using exceptionally large number of nanochannels within graphene oxide (GO) laminates. The nanoconfined water molecules in GO nanochannels form square lattice (as in the ice bilayer), which melts and jumps across the channels, similar to slip flow, with mean speed of the order of 1 m/s. This ease of liquid spreading in GO laminate is used to delay the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon in water pool boiling, by preventing formation/growth of dry spots. The water nanocapillarity speed is derived based on the measured water penetration flux, and the CHF enhancement (up to 140%) is demonstrated on a 1-μm-thick GO laminate. The GO laminate offers efficient surface modifications for increased transport efficiency (and safety margin) of pool boiling heat transfer systems.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kim, H. D. , and Kim, M. H. , 2007, “ Effect of Nanoparticle Deposition on Capillary Wicking That Influences the Critical Heat Flux in Nanofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 91(1), p. 014104. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. M. , Ölc¸eroğlu, E. , and McCarthy, M. , 2014, “ Role of Wickability on the Critical Heat Flux of Structured Superhydrophilic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 30(37), pp. 11225–11234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chu, K.-H. , Enright, R. , and Wang, E. N. , 2012, “ Structured Surfaces for Enhanced Pool Boiling Heat Transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 100(24), p. 241603. [CrossRef]
Chu, K.-H. , Soo Joung, Y. , Enright, R. , Buie, C. R. , and Wang, E. N. , 2013, “ Hierarchically Structured Surfaces for Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 102(15), p. 151602. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Jo, H. J. , Kang, S. H. , and Kim, M. H. , 2011, “ Effect of Liquid Spreading Due to Nano/Microstructures on the Critical Heat Flux During Pool Boiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 98(7), p. 071908. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Park, G. , Kim, J. , and Kim, M. H. , 2012, “ Wicking and Spreading of Water Droplets on Nanotubes,” Langmuir, 28(5), pp. 2614–2619. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zuber, N. , 1959, “ Hydrodynamic Aspects of Boiling Heat Transfer,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
Park, S. D. , Won Lee, S. , Kang, S. , Bang, I. C. , Kim, J. H. , Shin, H. S. , Lee, D. W. , and Won Lee, D. , 2010, “ Effects of Nanofluids Containing Graphene/Graphene-Oxide Nanosheets on Critical Heat Flux,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 97(2), p. 023103. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Kim, J. M. , and Kim, M. H. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of the Effect of a Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating on Critical Heat Flux Enhancement,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 60, pp. 763–771. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Kim, J. M. , Park, C. , Jang, J. W. , Lee, J. S. , Kim, H. , Kaviany, M. , and Kim, M. H. , 2013, “ A Novel Role of Three Dimensional Graphene Foam to Prevent Heater Failure During Boiling,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 01960. [CrossRef]
Ahn, H. S. , Kim, J. M. , Kim, T. , Park, S. C. , Kim, J. M. , Park, Y. , Yu, D. I. , Hwang, K. W. , Jo, H. , Park, H. S. , Kim, H. , and Kim, M. H. , 2014, “ Enhanced Heat Transfer is Dependent on Thickness of Graphene Films: The Heat Dissipation During Boiling,” Sci. Rep., 4, p. 6276. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, J. M. , Kim, T. , Kim, J. , Kim, M. H. , and Ahn, H. S. , 2014, “ Effect of a Graphene Oxide Coating Layer on Critical Heat Flux Enhancement Under Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 77, pp. 919–927. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. M. , Kim, J. H. , Park, S. C. , Kim, M. H. , and Ahn, H. S. , 2016, “ Nucleate Boiling in Graphene Oxide Colloids: Morphological Change and Critical Heat Flux Enhancement,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 85, pp. 209–222. [CrossRef]
Arik, M. , and Bar-Cohen, A. , 2003, “ Effusivity-Based Correlation of Surface Property Effects in Pool Boiling CHF of Dielectric Liquids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(20), pp. 3755–3764. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2001, “ A Theoretical Model to Predict Pool Boiling CHF Incorporating Effects of Contact Angle and Orientation,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 123(6), pp. 1071–1079. [CrossRef]
Liter, S. G. , and Kaviany, M. , 2001, “ Pool-Boiling CHF Enhancement by Modulated Porous-Layer Coating: Theory and Experiment,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44(22), pp. 4287–4311. [CrossRef]
Nair, R. R. , Wu, H. A. , Jayaram, P. N. , Grigorieva, I. V. , and Geim, A. K. , 2012, “ Unimpeded Permeation of Water Through Helium-Leak-Tight Graphene-Based Membranes,” Science, 335(6067), pp. 442–444. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Joshi, R. K. , Carbone, P. , Wang, F. C. , Kravets, V. G. , Su, Y. , Grigorieva, I. V. , Wu, H. A. , Geim, A. K. , and Nair, R. R. , 2014, “ Precise and Ultrafast Molecular Sieving Through Graphene Oxide Membranes,” Science, 343(6172), pp. 752–754. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sun, P. , Liu, H. , Wang, K. , Zhong, M. , Wu, D. , and Zhu, H. , 2015, “ Ultrafast Liquid Water Transport Through Graphene-Based Nanochannels Measured by Isotope Labelling,” Chem. Commun., 51(15), pp. 3251–3254. [CrossRef]
Tong, W. L. , Ong, W.-J. , Chai, S.-P. , Tan, M. K. , and Hung, Y. M. , 2015, “ Enhanced Evaporation Strength Through Fast Water Permeation in Graphene-Oxide Deposition,” Sci. Rep., 5, p. 11896.
Caupin, F. , Cole, M. W. , Balibar, S. , and Treiner, J. , 2008, “ Absolute Limit for the Capillary Rise of a Fluid,” Europhys. Lett., 82(5), p. 56004. [CrossRef]
Qiao, Y. , Xu, X. , and Li, H. , 2013, “ Conduction of Water Molecules Through Graphene Bilayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 103(23), p. 233106. [CrossRef]
Boukhvalov, D. W. , Katsnelson, M. I. , and Son, Y.-W. , 2013, “ Origin of Anomalous Water Permeation Through Graphene Oxide Membrane,” Nano Lett., 13(8), pp. 3930–3935. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wei, N. , Peng, X. , and Xu, Z. , 2014, “ Breakdown of Fast Water Transport in Graphene Oxides,” Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys., 89(1), p. 012113. [CrossRef]
Koenig, S. P. , Wang, L. , Pellegrino, J. , and Bunch, J. S. , 2012, “ Selective Molecular Sieving Through Porous Graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol., 7(11), pp. 728–732. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, H. , Song, Z. , Wei, N. , Shi, L. , Mao, Y. , Ying, Y. , Sun, L. , Xu, Z. , and Peng, X. , 2013, “ Ultrafast Viscous Water Flow Through Nanostrand-Channelled Graphene Oxide Membranes,” Nat. Commun., 4, p. 2979. [PubMed]
Paul, D. R. , 2012, “ Creating New Types of Carbon-Based Membranes,” Science, 335(6067), pp. 413–414. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, D. , Muller, M. B. , Gilje, S. , Kaner, R. B. , and Wallace, G. G. , 2008, “ Processable Aqueous Dispersions of Graphene Nanosheets,” Nat. Nanotechnol., 3(2), pp. 101–105. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dikin, D. A. , Stankovich, S. , Zimney, E. J. , Piner, R. D. , Dommett, G. H. B. , Evmenenko, G. , Nguyen, S. T. , and Ruoff, R. S. , 2007, “ Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper,” Nature, 448(7152), pp. 457–460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cote, L. J. , Kim, F. , and Huang, J. , 2008, “ Langmuir−Blodgett Assembly of Graphite Oxide Single Layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131(3), pp. 1043–1049. [CrossRef]
Haramura, Y. , and Katto, Y. , 1983, “ A New Hydrodynamic Model of Critical Heat Flux, Applicable Widely to Both Pool and Forced Convection Boiling on Submerged Bodies in Saturated Liquids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 26(3), pp. 389–399. [CrossRef]
Lerf, A. , Buchsteiner, A. , Pieper, J. , Schöttl, S. , Dekany, I. , Szabo, T. , and Boehm, H. P. , 2006, “ Hydration Behavior and Dynamics of Water Molecules in Graphite Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 67(5–6), pp. 1106–1110. [CrossRef]
Cerveny, S. , Barroso-Bujans, F. , Alegria, A. , and Colmenero, J. , 2010, “ Dynamics of Water Intercalated in Graphite Oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. C, 114(6), pp. 2604–2612. [CrossRef]
Algara-Siller, G. , Lehtinen, O. , Wang, F. C. , Nair, R. R. , Kaiser, U. , Wu, H. A. , Geim, A. K. , and Grigorieva, I. V. , 2015, “ Square Ice in Graphene Nanocapillaries,” Nature, 519(7544), pp. 443–445. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Andrikopoulos, K. S. , Bounos, G. , Tasis, D. , Sygellou, L. , Drakopoulos, V. , and Voyiatzis, G. A. , 2014, “ The Effect of Thermal Reduction on the Water Vapor Permeation in Graphene Oxide Membranes,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces, 1(8), p. 2400250.
Duan, C. , Karnik, R. , Lu, M.-C. , and Majumdar, A. , 2012, “ Evaporation-Induced Cavitation in Nanofluidic Channels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 109(10), pp. 3688–3693. [CrossRef]
Kaviany, M. , 2012, Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media, Springer Science & Business Media, New York.
Bird, R. B. , Stewart, W. E. , and Lightfoot, E. N. , 1960, Transport Phenomena, Wiley, New York, p. 413.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Graphene oxide (GO) colloids showed a transparent brown color, (b) GO flakes showed a two-dimensional (2D) monolayer structure in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, where the hexagonal sp2 bonding structure of carbon atoms was damaged in the chemical oxidation process, as seen in, and (c) the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of the water penetration experiment with vacuum suction and (b) thickness of GO laminate versus area density of GO (inset) an image of a GO laminate film on a membrane filter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Pool-boiling experimental apparatus, (b) image of nucleate boiling on the main heater, (c) upper side, and (d) underside view of the main heater, showing the mirror-polished silicon plate with a platinum film heater on its underside

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Morphology of the GO laminate formed by boiling: (a) GO-coated surface (gray) after experiments, (b) atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of GO film and GO flakes (inset). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of, (c) the top view of a region damaged by critical heat flux (CHF), and (d) its cross section, providing evidence that GO has a well-aligned laminate structure.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boiling curve; case of 1 mg/L, 5 mg/L, and 10 mg/L [13]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

CHF as a function of the thickness of the GO laminate and its prediction by nanocapillarity using Eq. (6). (Inset) schematic diagram of nanocapillary inflow into a dry-out zone during bubble growth on the GO laminate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of a GO laminate film on CHF enhancement: high-speed visualization images of boiling under near-CHF conditions using de-ionized (DI) water on (a) a bare surface (700 kW/m2) and (b) the prepared GO laminate (1200 kW/m2), indicating that it could delay CHF, despite a higher area of vapor stems. Schematic diagram of nanocapillary inflow via the GO laminate underneath the mushroom, (c) top view, (d) side view in a unit cell, and (e) evaporation on top of the GO laminate. (See figure online for color.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Plot of the measured X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the GO laminate by boiling and by filtration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Water penetration flux according to thickness of the GO laminate and evaluation of the nanocapillary speed of water molecules. (Inset graph) nanocapillary speed according to depth of the GO laminate. (Inset schematics) the water molecules should penetrate the longer (shorter) effective nanochannels to reach the boiling surface according to the depth of the GO laminate film, as indicated by the lower (upper) line, which causes as reduction in their speed.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of liquid inflow to evaluate the equivalent thickness of a GO laminate on wire heater geometry: (a) a wire heater and (b) a plate heater (arrow inside bubble: liquid evaporation, arrow outside bubble: liquid supply)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In