Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Characteristics in a Sessile Droplet on Oil-Impregnated Surface Under Thermal Disturbance

[+] Author and Article Information
Abdullah Al-Sharafi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: alsharafi@kfupm.edu.sa

Bekir S. Yilbas

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Centre of Excellence for Renewable Energy,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

Haider Ali

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: haiali@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 19, 2016; final manuscript received March 31, 2017; published online May 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Guihua Tang.

J. Heat Transfer 139(9), 092004 (May 09, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1757; doi: 10.1115/1.4036388 History: Received November 19, 2016; Revised March 31, 2017

The present study examines the flow field and heat transfer inside a sessile droplet on oil-impregnated surface when subjected to a small temperature difference at the droplet–oil interface. Temperature and flow fields inside the droplet are predicted and the flow velocities predicted are validated through the data obtained from a particle image velocimetry (PIV). Several images of droplets in varying sizes are analyzed and the droplet geometric features and experimental conditions are incorporated in the simulations. A polycarbonate wafer is used to texture the surface via incorporating a solvent-induced crystallization method. Silicon oil is used for impregnation of the textured surfaces. It is found that two counter-rotating circulation cells are formed in the droplet because of the combined effect of the Marangoni and buoyant currents on the flow field. A new dimensionless number (Merve number (MN)) is introduced to assess the behavior of the Nusselt and the Bond numbers with the droplet size. The Merve number represents the ratio of the gravitational force over the surface tension force associated with the sessile droplet and it differs from the Weber number. The Nusselt number demonstrates three distinct behaviors with the Merve number; in which case, the Nusselt number increases sharply for the range 0.8 ≤ MN ≤ 1. The Bond number increases with increasing the Merve number, provided that its values remain less than unity, which indicates the Marangoni current is dominant in the flow field.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Shirtcliffe, N. J. , McHale, G. , Newton, M. I. , Chabrol, G. , and Perry, C. C. , 2004, “ Dual‐Scale Roughness Produces Unusually Water-Repellent Surfaces,” Adv. Mater., 16(21), pp. 1929–1932. [CrossRef]
Hwang, H. S. , Lee, S. B. , and Park, I. , 2010, “ Fabrication of Raspberry-Like Superhydrophobic Hollow Silica Particles,” Mater. Lett., 64(20), pp. 2159–2162. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y.-H. , Wu, J.-T. , and Yang, S.-Y. , 2011, “ Direct Fabricating Patterns Using Stamping Transfer Process With PDMS Mold of Hydrophobic Nanostructures on Surface of Micro-Cavity,” Microelectron. Eng., 88(6), pp. 849–854. [CrossRef]
Yang, T. , Tian, H. , and Chen, Y. , 2009, “ Preparation of Superhydrophobic Silica Films With Honeycomb-Like Structure by Emulsion Method,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., 49(2), pp. 243–246. [CrossRef]
Kinoshita, H. , Ogasahara, A. , Fukuda, Y. , and Ohmae, N. , 2010, “ Superhydrophobic/Superhydrophilic Micropatterning on a Carbon Nanotube Film Using a Laser Plasma-Type Hyperthermal Atom Beam Facility,” Carbon, 48(15), pp. 4403–4408. [CrossRef]
Latthe, S. S. , Imai, H. , Ganesan, V. , and Rao, A. V. , 2009, “ Superhydrophobic Silica Films by Sol—Gel Co-Precursor Method,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 256(1), pp. 217–222. [CrossRef]
Ma, M. , Mao, Y. , Gupta, M. , Gleason, K. K. , and Rutledge, G. C. , 2005, “ Superhydrophobic Fabrics Produced by Electrospinning and Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Macromolecules, 38(23), pp. 9742–9748. [CrossRef]
Xia, Z. , Yonggang, G. , Pingyu, Z. , Zhishen, W. , and Zhijun, Z. , 2010, “ Superhydrophobic CuO@Cu2S Nanoplate Vertical Arrays on Copper Surfaces,” Mater. Lett., 64(10), pp. 1200–1203. [CrossRef]
Ozbay, S. , Yuceel, C. , and Erbil, H. Y. , 2015, “ Improved Icephobic Properties on Surfaces With a Hydrophilic Lubricating Liquid,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7(39), pp. 22067–22077. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Schellenberger, F. , Xie, J. , Encinas, N. , Hardy, A. , Klapper, M. , Papadopoulos, P. , Butt, H.-J. , and Vollmer, D. , 2015, “ Direct Observation of Drops on Slippery Lubricant-Infused Surfaces,” Soft Matter, 11(38), pp. 7617–7626. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Smith, J. D. , Dhiman, R. , Anand, S. , Reza-Garduno, E. , Cohen, R. E. , McKinley, G. H. , and Varanasi, K. K. , 2013, “ Droplet Mobility on Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces,” Soft Matter, 9(6), pp. 1772–1780. [CrossRef]
Zheng, Z. , Zhou, L. , Du, X. , and Yang, Y. , 2016, “ Numerical Investigation on Conjugate Heat Transfer of Evaporating Thin Film in a Sessile Droplet,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 101, pp. 10–19. [CrossRef]
Moon, J. H. , Cho, M. , and Lee, S. H. , 2016, “ Dynamic Wetting and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Liquid Droplet Impinging on Heated Textured Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 97, pp. 308–317. [CrossRef]
Jung, J. , Jeong, S. , and Kim, H. , 2016, “ Investigation of Single-Droplet/Wall Collision Heat Transfer Characteristics Using Infrared Thermometry,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 92, pp. 774–783. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, S.-S. , and Luo, S.-Y. , 2016, “ Droplet Impact Dynamics and Transient Heat Transfer of a Micro Spray System for Power Electronics Devices,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 92, pp. 190–205. [CrossRef]
Sadafi, M. , Jahn, I. , Stilgoe, A. , and Hooman, K. , 2015, “ A Theoretical Model With Experimental Verification for Heat and Mass Transfer of Saline Water Droplets,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 81, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Hays, R. , Maynes, D. , and Crockett, J. , 2016, “ Thermal Transport to Droplets on Heated Superhydrophobic Substrates,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 98, pp. 70–80. [CrossRef]
Shi, Y. , Tang, G. , and Xia, H. , 2015, “ Investigation of Coalescence-Induced Droplet Jumping on Superhydrophobic Surfaces and Liquid Condensate Adhesion on Slit and Plain Fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 88, pp. 445–455. [CrossRef]
Al-Sharafi, A. , Yilbas, B. S. , Sahin, A. Z. , Ali, H. , and Al-Qahtani, H. , 2016, “ Heat Transfer Characteristics and Internal Fluidity of a Sessile Droplet on Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 108, pp. 628–640. [CrossRef]
Al-Sharafi, A. , Ali, H. , Yilbas, B. S. , Sahin, A. Z. , Khaled, M. , Al-Aqeeli, N. , and Al-Sulaiman, F. , 2016, “ Influence of Thermal Capillary and Buoyant Forces on Flow Characteristics in a Droplet on Hydrophobic Surface,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 102, pp. 239–253. [CrossRef]
Yao, X. , Hu, Y. , Grinthal, A. , Wong, T.-S. , Mahadevan, L. , and Aizenberg, J. , 2013, “ Adaptive Fluid-Infused Porous Films With Tunable Transparency and Wettability,” Nat. Mater., 12(6), pp. 529–534. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mahadevan, L. , and Pomeau, Y. , 1999, “ Rolling Droplets,” Phys. Fluids, 11(9), pp. 2449–2453. [CrossRef]
Tam, D. , von Arnim, V. , McKinley, G. , and Hosoi, A. , 2009, “ Marangoni Convection in Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” J. Fluid Mech., 624, pp. 101–123. [CrossRef]
Lu, G. , Duan, Y.-Y. , Wang, X.-D. , and Lee, D.-J. , 2011, “ Internal Flow in Evaporating Droplet on Heated Solid Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(19–20), pp. 4437–4447. [CrossRef]
Zografos, A. I. , Martin, W. A. , and Sunderland, J. E. , 1987, “ Equations of Properties as a Function of Temperature for Seven Fluids,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 61(2), pp. 177–187. [CrossRef]
COMSOL, 2016, “ The Platform for Physics-Based Modeling and Simulation,” COMSOL Multiphysics, Burlington, MA, accessed Apr. 12, 2017, http://www.comsol.com/comsol-multiphysics
Marshall, J. S. , and Palmer, W. M. K. , 1948, “ The Distribution of Raindrops With Size,” J. Meteorol., 5(4), pp. 165–166. [CrossRef]
Yilbas, B. , Ali, H. , Al-Aqeeli, N. , Khaled, M. , Abu-Dheir, N. , and Varanasi, K. , 2016, “ Solvent‐Induced Crystallization of a Polycarbonate Surface and Texture Copying by Polydimethylsiloxane for Improved Surface Hydrophobicity,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 133(22), pp. 43467–43479.
Adeyinka, O. , and Naterer, G. , 2005, “ Experimental Uncertainty of Measured Entropy Production With Pulsed Laser PIV and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 48(8), pp. 1450–1461. [CrossRef]
DANTEC DYNAMICS, 2016, “Particle Image Velocimetry,” DANTEC DYNAMICS, Skovlunde, Denmark, accessed Apr. 12, 2017, http://www.dantecdynamics.com/particle-image-velocimetry
Lafuma, A. , and Quéré, D. , 2011, “ Slippery Pre-Suffused Surfaces,” Europhys. Lett., 96(5), p. 56001. [CrossRef]
Shirtcliffe, N. J. , McHale, G. , and Newton, M. I. , 2011, “ The Superhydrophobicity of Polymer Surfaces: Recent Developments,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 49(17), pp. 1203–1217. [CrossRef]
Carré, A. , Gastel, J.-C. , and Shanahan, M. E. , 1996, “ Viscoelastic Effects in the Spreading of Liquids,” Nature, 379, pp. 432–434.
Shanahan, M. , and Carre, A. , 1995, “ Viscoelastic Dissipation in Wetting and Adhesion Phenomena,” Langmuir, 11(4), pp. 1396–1402. [CrossRef]
Kang, K. H. , Lim, H. C. , Lee, H. W. , and Lee, S. J. , 2013, “ Evaporation-Induced Saline Rayleigh Convection Inside a Colloidal Droplet,” Phys. Fluids, 25(4), p. 042001. [CrossRef]
Buongiorno, J. , 2006, “ Convective Transport in Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(3), pp. 240–250. [CrossRef]
Morsi, S. , and Alexander, A. , 1972, “ An Investigation of Particle Trajectories in Two-Phase Flow Systems,” J. Fluid Mech., 55(2), pp. 193–208. [CrossRef]
Vand, V. , 1945, “ Theory of Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions,” Nature, 155(3934), pp. 364–365. [CrossRef]
Halliday, D. , Resnick, R. , and Walker, J. , 2005, Fundamentals of Physics, 7th ed., Wiley, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Optical image and mesh produced for 20 μL water droplet: (a) schematic of silicon oil encapsulation on the textured surface, (b) water droplet optical image on impregnated silicon oil surface with the presence of wetting ridge, and (c) water droplet geometry meshed for numerical simulations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Grid-independent test. Numerical predictions along the central rake predicted for various mesh sizes incorporated in the simulations. The droplet volume is 40 μL and the heating duration is 30 s: (a) velocity distribution and (b) temperature distribution.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flow velocity inside the droplet after 30 s of heating duration: (a) and (b) velocity field obtained from three-dimensional simulation for the water droplet on an oil-impregnated surface for 20 μL and 80 μL droplet volumes, respectively, (c) and (d) velocity field obtained from two-dimensional simulation inside water droplet on an oil-impregnated surface for 20 μL and 80 μL droplet volumes, respectively, and (e) velocity field obtained from two-dimensional simulation of water droplet on a smooth solid surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Micrographs of solution crystallized polycarbonate surface prior to silicon oil impregnation: (a) 3D image of crystallized surface obtained from atomic force microscope, (b) line scan of crystallized surface obtained from atomic force microscopy, (c) scanning electron microscope micrograph of crystallized surface, and (d) scanning electron microscope micrograph showing close view of whiskerslike structures on crystallized surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Optical image of water droplet on oil-impregnated surface: (a) water droplet volume is 20 μL, (b) water droplet volume is 40 μL, (c) water droplet volume is 60 μL, and (d) water droplet volume is 80 μL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Particle velocimetry images of hollow glass particles inside 40 μL droplet (a) particle tracking of “A” particle and (b) tracking of “B” particle. The time in between the images are 0.12 s and the images captured at 100 fps.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Optical image of 90 μL water droplet on impregnated surface and partial cloaking of oil on droplet surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Temperature variation along the central rake for different heating durations. The droplet volume is 40 μL.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Velocity contours inside water droplet and oil ridge for various droplet volumes. The heating duration is 30 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperature contours inside water droplet and oil ridge for various droplet volumes. The heating duration is 30 s.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature variation along the central rake of droplet with two volumes after 30 s of heating duration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temporal variation of Bond and Merve numbers in the droplet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The Nusselt and Bond numbers variation with the Merve number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

A schematic view of ray-tracing diagram for a spherical liquid lens [23]




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In