0
Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

A Comprehensive Experimental Investigation of the Performance of Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Halimi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrood University of Technology,
University Boulevard,
P.O. Box 3619995161-316,
Shahrood, Iran
e-mail: mohammadhalimi1990@gmail.com

A. Abbas Nejad

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrood University of Technology,
University Boulevard,
P.O. Box 3619995161-316,
Shahrood, Iran
e-mail: abbasnejad@shahroodut.ac.ir

M. Norouzi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shahrood University of Technology,
University Boulevard,
P.O. Box 3619995161-316,
Shahrood, Iran
e-mail: mnorouzi@shahroodut.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 11, 2016; final manuscript received March 14, 2017; published online May 2, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Zhixiong Guo.

J. Heat Transfer 139(9), 092003 (May 02, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1734; doi: 10.1115/1.4036460 History: Received November 11, 2016; Revised March 14, 2017

Closed-loop pulsating heat pipes (CLPHPs) are a new type of two-phase heat transfer devices that can transfer considerable heat in a small space via two-phase vapor and liquid pulsating flow and work with various types of two-phase instabilities so the operating mechanism of CLPHP is not well understood. In this work, two CLPHPs, made of Pyrex, were manufactured to observe and investigate the flow regime that occurs during the operation of CLPHP and thermal performance of the device under different laboratory conditions. In general, various working fluids were used in filling ratios of 40%, 50%, and 60% in horizontal and vertical modes to investigate the effect of thermo-physical parameters, filling ratio, nanoparticles, gravity, CLPHP structure, and input heat flux on the thermal performance of CLPHP. The results indicate that three types of flow regime may be observed given laboratory conditions. Each flow regime exerts a different effect on the thermal performance of the device. There is an optimal filling ratio for each working fluid. The increased number of turns in CLPHP generally improves the thermal performance of the system reducing the effect of the type of the working fluid on the aforementioned performance. The adoption of copper nanoparticles, which positively affect fluid motion, decreases the thermal resistance of the system as much as 6.06–42.76% depending on laboratory conditions. Moreover, gravity brings about positive changes in the flow regime decreasing thermal resistance as much as 32.13–52.58%.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Smyrnov, G. F. , and Savchenkov, G. A. , 1971, “ Pulsating Heat Pipe,” USSR Patent No. 504065.
Akachi, H. , 1990, “ Structure of a Heat Pipe,” Actronics Kabushiki Kaisha, Isehara, JP, U.S. Patent No. US4921041 A.
Song, Y. , and Xu, J. , 2009, “ Chaotic Behavior of Pulsating Heat Pipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(13–14), pp. 2932–2941. [CrossRef]
Mehta, B. , and Khandekar, S. , 2014, “ Taylor Bubble-Train Flows and Heat Transfer in the Context of Pulsating Heat Pipes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 79, pp. 279–290. [CrossRef]
Tang, B. , Wong, T. , and Ooi, K. , 2001, “ Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 21(18), pp. 1845–1862. [CrossRef]
Qu, W. , and Ma, T. Z. , 2002, “ Experimental Investigation on Flow and Heat Transfer of Pulsating Heat Pipe,” J. Eng. Thermophys., 23(5), pp. 596–598.
Khandekar, S. , Gautam, A. P. , and Sharma, P. K. , 2009, “ Multiple Quasi-Steady States in a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 48(3), pp. 535–546. [CrossRef]
Mameli, M. , and Khandekar, S. , 2014, “ Local Heat Transfer Measurement and Thermo-Fluid Characterization of a Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 75, pp. 140–152. [CrossRef]
Spinato, G. , Borhani, N. , Dentremont, D. P. , and Thome, J. R. , 2015, “ Time-Strip Visualization and Thermo-Hydrodynamics in a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 78, pp. 364–372. [CrossRef]
Borgmeyer, B. , and Ma, H. , 2007, “ Experimental Investigation of Oscillating Motions in a Flat Plate Pulsating Heat Pipe,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 21(2), pp. 405–409. [CrossRef]
Hosoda, M. , Nishio, S. , and Shirakashi, R. , 1999, “ Study of Meandering Closed-Loop Heat-Transport Device: Vapor-Plug Propagation Phenomena,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B, 42(4), pp. 737–744. [CrossRef]
Khandekar, S. , Dollinger, N. , and Groll, M. , 2003, “ Understanding Operational Regimes of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes: An Experimental Study,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 23(6), pp. 707–719. [CrossRef]
Yang, H. , Khandekar, S. , and Groll, M. , 2008, “ Operational Limit of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(1), pp. 49–59. [CrossRef]
Charoensawan, P. , and Terdtoon, P. , 2008, “ Thermal Performance of Horizontal Closed-Loop OHPs,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(5–6), pp. 460–466. [CrossRef]
Gamit, H. , More, V. , Mukund, B. , and Mehta, H. , 2015, “ Experimental Investigations on Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Energy Proc., 75, pp. 3186–3191. [CrossRef]
Khandekar, S. , 2010, “ Pulsating Heat Pipe Based Heat Exchangers,” 21st International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Nov. 2–5, pp. 2–5.
Yin, D. , Rajab, H. , and Ma, H. B. , 2014, “ Theoretical Analysis of Maximum Filling Ratio in an Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 74, pp. 353–357. [CrossRef]
Charoensawan, P. , Khandekar, S. , Groll, M. , and Terdtoon, P. , 2003, “ Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes—Part A: Parametric Experimental Investigations,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 23(16), pp. 2009–2020. [CrossRef]
Karthikeyan, V . K. , Ramachandran, K. , Pillai, B. C. , and Solomon, A. B. , 2013, “ Effect of Number of Turns on the Temperature Pulsations and Corresponding Thermal Performance of Pulsating Heat Pipe,” J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 20(5), pp. 443–452. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , and Faghri, A. , 2003, “ Oscillatory Flow in Pulsating Heat Pipes With Arbitrary Numbers of Turns,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 17(3), pp. 340–347. [CrossRef]
Maezawa, S. , Izumi, T. , and Gi, K. , 1997, “ Experimental Chaos in Oscillating Capillary Tube Heat Pipes,” 10th International Heat Pipe Conference (IHPC), Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 22–25, pp. 56–61.
Liu, X. , Chen, Y. , and Shi, M. , 2013, “ Dynamic Performance Analysis on Start-Up of Closed-Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes (CLPHPs),” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 65, pp. 224–233. [CrossRef]
Thompson, S. M. , Hathaway, A. A. , Smoot, C. D. , Wilson, C. A. , Ma, H. B. , Young, R. M. , Greenberg, L. , Osick, B. R. , Campen, S. V. , Morgan, B. C. , Sharar, D. , and Jankowski, N. , 2011, “ Robust Thermal Performance of a Flat-Plate Oscillating Heat Pipe During High-Gravity Loading,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(10), p. 104504. [CrossRef]
Mameli, M. , Araneo, L. , Filippeschi, S. , Marelli, L. , Testa, R. , and Marengo, M. , 2014, “ Thermal Response of a Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe Under a Varying Gravity Force,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 80(1), pp. 11–22. [CrossRef]
Jagtap, H. B. , and Wankhede, U. S. , 2015, “ Review on Thermal Performance of Oscillating Heat Pipe With Different Working Fluids,” Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res., 10(4), pp. 9335–9353.
Rittidech, S. , Terdtoon, P. , Tantakom, P. , Murakami, M. , and Jompakdee, W. , 2000, “ Effect of Inclination Angles, Evaporator Section Lengths and Working Fluid Properties on Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Closed-End OHP,” 6th International Heat-Pipe Symposium, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Nov. 5–9, pp. 413–421.
Schneider, M. , Khandekar, S. , Schafer, P. , Kulenovic, R. , and Groll, M. , 2000, “ Visualization of Thermo Fluid-Dynamic Phenomena in Flat Plate Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipes,” 6th International Heat Pipe Symposium, Chiang Mai, Thailand, Nov. 5–9, pp. 235–247.
Zhang, X. M. , 2004, “ Experimental Study of a Pulsating Heat Pipe Using FC-72, Ethanol, and Water as Working Fluids,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 17(1), pp. 47–67. [CrossRef]
Shafii, M. , Faghri, A. , and Zhang, Y. , 2002, “ Analysis of Heat Transfer in Unlooped and Looped Pulsating Heat Pipes,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow, 12(5), pp. 585–609. [CrossRef]
Groll, M. , and Khandekar, S. , 2002, “ Pulsating Heat Pipes: A Challenge and Still Unsolved Problem in Heat Pipe Science,” Arch. Thermodyn., 23(4), pp. 17–28.
Yang, K. , Cheng, Y. , Liu, M. , and Shyu, J. , 2015, “ Micro Pulsating Heat Pipes With Alternate Microchannel Widths,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 83, pp. 131–138. [CrossRef]
Choi, S. , and Eastman, J. , 1995, “ Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” ASME Publ. Fed., 231, pp. 99–106.
Wang, S. , Lin, Z. , Zhang, W. , and Chen, J. , 2009, “ Experimental Study on Pulsating Heat Pipe With Functional Thermal Fluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(21), pp. 5276–5279. [CrossRef]
Qu, J. , Wu, H. Y. , and Cheng, P. , 2010, “ Thermal Performance of an Oscillating Heat Pipe With Al2O3–Water Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(2), pp. 111–115. [CrossRef]
Qu, J. , and Wu, H. , 2011, “ Thermal Performance Comparison of Oscillating Heat Pipes With SiO2/Water and Al2O3/Water Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(10), pp. 1954–1962. [CrossRef]
Ji, Y. , Ma, H. , Su, F. , and Wang, G. , 2011, “ Particle Size Effect on Heat Transfer Performance in an Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(4), pp. 724–727. [CrossRef]
Ma, H. , Wilson, C. , Borgmeyer, B. , Park, K. , Yu, Q. , Choi, S. U. S. , and Tirumala, M. , 2006, “ Effect of Nanofluid on the Heat Transport Capability in an Oscillating Heat Pipe,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 88(14), pp. 1–3.
Ma, H. , Wilson, C. , Park, K. , Yu, Q. , Choi, S. U. S. , and Tirumala, M. , 2006, “ An Experimental Investigation of Heat Transport Capability in a Nanofluid Oscillating Heat Pipe,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(11), pp. 1213–1216. [CrossRef]
Zhao, N. , Zhao, D. , and Ma, H. , 2013, “ Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Field Effect on the Magnetic Nanofluid Oscillating Heat Pipe,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 5(1), p. 11005. [CrossRef]
Lutfor Rahman, M. , Mira, F. , Nawrin, S. , Sultan, R. A. , and Ali, M. , 2015, “ Effect of Fin and Insert on the Performance Characteristics of Open Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (OLPHP),” Proc. Eng., 105, pp. 105–112. [CrossRef]
Lutfor Rahman, M. , Sultan, R. A. , Islam, T. , Hasan, N. M. , and Ali, M. , 2015, “ An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Fin in the Performance of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP),” Proc. Eng., 105, pp. 137–144. [CrossRef]
Lutfor Rahman, M. , Mira, F. , Nawrin, S. , Sultan, R. A. , and Ali, M. , 2015, “ Effect of Fin and Insert on the Performance Characteristics of Close Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (CLPHP),” Proc. Eng., 105, pp. 129–136. [CrossRef]
Zuo, Z. , and North, M. , 2000, “ Miniature High Heat Flux Heat Pipes for Cooling of Electronics,” SEE, pp. 573–579.
Wong, T. , Tong, B. , Lim, S. , and Ooi, K. , 1999, “ Theoretical Modeling of Pulsating Heat Pipe,” 11th International Heat Pipe Conference (IHPC), Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 12–16, pp. 159–163.
Yang, X. S. , and Luan, T. , 2012, “ Modeling of a Pulsating Heat Pipe and Startup Asymptotics,” Proc. Comput. Sci., 9, pp. 784–791. [CrossRef]
Burban, G. , Ayel, V. , Alexandr, A. , Lagonotte, P. , Bertin, Y. , and Romestant, C. , 2013, “ Experimental Investigation of a Pulsating Heat Pipe for Hybrid Vehicle Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 50(1), pp. 94–103. [CrossRef]
Zhu, L. , Liu, J. , Wang, B. , and Wang, Z. H. , 2007, Principles of Chemical Engineering, Petroleum Industry Press, Beijing, China, pp. 521–522.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic arrangement of the heater plate and CLPHP's evaporator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: condensation section (1), evaporation section (2), entry and exit valve of working fluid (3), vacuum valve (4), and thermal plate (5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Picture of bubbles in the combination of three types of regimes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Overall thermal resistance diagrams in terms of time for different working fluids (vertical mode): (a) water, CLPHP1; (b) water, CLPHP2; (c) ethanol, CLPHP1; (d) Ethanol, CLPHP2; (e) acetone, CLPHP1; and (f) acetone, CLPHP2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average values of overall thermal resistance of water and copper nanofluid at different filling ratios (vertical mode): (a) CLPHP1 and (b) CLPHP2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Overall thermal resistance diagrams in terms of time for copper nanofluid (vertical mode): (a) CLPHP1 and (b) CLPHP2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Average values of overall thermal resistance of ethanol and water at different filling ratios (comparison of vertical and horizontal mode) (a) ethanol, CLPHP1; (b) ethanol, CLPHP2; (c) water, CLPHP1; and (d) water, CLPHP2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Evaporator and condenser temperature diagrams in terms of time for ethanol as the working fluid (CLPHP2, vertical mode)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Overall thermal resistance diagram in terms of time for ethanol as the working fluid (CLPHP2, vertical mode)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In