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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Comparison of the Volume of Fluid and CLSVOF Methods for the Assessment of Flow Boiling in Silicon Microgaps

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lorenzini

G.W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332

Yogendra Joshi

G.W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: yogendra.joshi@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 11, 2016; final manuscript received March 7, 2017; published online June 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Peter Stephan.

J. Heat Transfer 139(11), 111506 (Jun 21, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1651; doi: 10.1115/1.4036682 History: Received October 11, 2016; Revised March 07, 2017

The three-dimensional (3D) stacking of integrated circuits (ICs), and emergent microelectronic technologies require low-profile cooling solutions for the removal of relatively high heat fluxes. The flow boiling of dielectric refrigerants represents a feasible alternative to such applications by providing compatibility with the electrical interconnections, relatively uniform temperature profiles, and higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with single phase-cooling. Despite important experimental evidence in this area has been recently reported in the literature, the modeling of such has remained in basic and limited forms due to the associated complexities with the physics of two-phase flow with phase-change. In an effort to expand the studied possibilities for the modeling of flow boiling, the present investigation compares two different phase-tracking methods for the analysis of such phenomena: the volume of fluid (VOF) and the coupled level set—volume of fluid (CLSVOF) techniques. These interface tracking and reconstruction techniques are coupled with a phase change model that accounts for the mass and energy transfer source terms to the governing equations. The geometric domain is constituted by a silicon microgap 175 μm high with a substrate thickness of 50 μm, and populated with circular pin fins of 150 μm diameter, where the heat conduction is simultaneously solved with temperature dependent properties. The flow boiling regimes and their spatial and temporal evolution are compared between both methods by maintaining the operating conditions. Results indicate that both methods provide a good capability to predict major two-phase flow regimes observed in experimental studies with these types of arrangements. However, the CLSVOF offers a sharper interface reconstruction than the standard VOF method by predicting bubble nucleation and departure mechanisms more closely to experimental observations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the analyzed silicon microgap and its relevant dimensions

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Fig. 2

Details of the hybrid nonconformal mesh used for the computational domain

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Fig. 3

Transient evolution of the two-phase flow regime in the silicon microgap predicted by the VOF and CLSVOF models for a mass flux of 1000 kg/m2 s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2. The surface indicates the liquid–vapor interface as seen from a top view (+z).

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the evolved two-phase flow regimes (t = 10 ms) in the silicon microgap predicted by the VOF and CLSVOF models for a mass flux of 1000 kg/m2 s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2. The surface indicates the liquid-vapor interface as seen from a top view (+z).

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the bubble nucleation process at upstream pin fins

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Fig. 6

Comparison of the bubble growth process at one of the upstream pin fins

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Fig. 7

Fluid temperature field (°C) in a cross section plane for an array of upstream pin fins

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the temperature contours (°C) regimes (t = 10 ms) in the silicon microgap predicted by the VOF and CLSVOF models for a mass flux of 1000 kg/m2 s and a heat flux of 100 W/cm2

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Fig. 9

Comparison of the average temperature variation at the bottom surface between the VOF and CLSVOF methods

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the two-phase pressure drop variation as a function of flow time between the VOF and CLSVOF methods

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