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research-article

Comparison of the VOF and CLSVOF Methods for the Assessment of Flow Boiling in Silicon Microgaps

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lorenzini

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
ldlg3@gatech.edu

Yogendra Joshi

G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA
yogendra.joshi@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4036682 History: Received October 11, 2016; Revised March 07, 2017

Abstract

The three-dimensional (3D) stacking of integrated circuits (ICs), and emergent microelectronic technologies require low-profile cooling solutions for the removal of relatively high heat fluxes. The flow boiling of dielectric refrigerants represents a feasible approach for such applications by providing compatibility with the electrical interconnections, relatively uniform temperature profiles, and higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with single phase-cooling. While important experimental evidence in this area has been recently reported in the literature, the modeling of transport has remained in basic and limited forms due to the associated complexities with the physics of two-phase flow with phase-change. The present investigation compares two different phase-tracking methods for the analysis of such phenomena: the Volume of Fluid (VOF) and the Coupled Level Set - Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) techniques. These interface tracking and reconstruction techniques are coupled with a phase change model that accounts for the mass and energy transfer source terms to the governing equations. The geometric domain is constituted by a silicon microgap 175 µm high with a substrate thickness of 50 µm, and populated with circular pin fins of 150 µm diameter, where the heat conduction is simultaneously solved using temperature dependent properties. The flow boiling regimes and their spatial and temporal evolution are compared between both methods by maintaining identical operating conditions. The CLSVOF offers a sharper interface reconstruction than the standard VOF method by predicting bubble nucleation and departure mechanisms more closely in agreement with experimental observations.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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