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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Microscale Morphology Effects of Copper–Graphene Oxide Coatings on Pool Boiling Characteristics

[+] Author and Article Information
Arvind Jaikumar

Microsystems Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: aj4853@rit.edu

Aniket Rishi

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: amr6756@rit.edu

Anju Gupta

Chemical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: argche@rit.edu

Satish G. Kandlikar

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
76 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623;
Microsystems Engineering Department,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: sgkeme@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 26, 2016; final manuscript received March 9, 2017; published online June 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Joel L. Plawsky.

J. Heat Transfer 139(11), 111509 (Jun 21, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1693; doi: 10.1115/1.4036695 History: Received October 26, 2016; Revised March 09, 2017

Enhanced pool boiling heat transfer, with simultaneous increase in critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC), is desired to improve overall system efficiency and reduce equipment size and cost. This paper focuses on combining graphene oxide (GO) and porous copper particles to generate microstructures based on their ability to enhance HTC, CHF, or both. Three pool boiling performance characteristics based on CHF improvements and wall superheat reductions are identified: Type I—reduction in wall superheat only, type II—increase in CHF only, and type III—increase in CHF with reduction in wall superheat at higher heat fluxes. Specific microscale morphologies were generated using (a) screen-printing and (b) electrodeposition techniques. In type-I, rapid bubble activity due to increased availability of nucleation cavities was seen to influence the reduction in the wall superheats, while no increase in CHF was noted. Roughness-augmented wettability was found to be the driving mechanism in type-II enhancement, while wicking and increased nucleation site density were responsible for the enhancement in type-III. An HTC enhancement of ∼216% in type-I and a CHF improvement of ∼70% in type-II were achieved when compared to a plain copper surface with water. In type-III enhancement, a CHF of 2.2 MW/m2 (1.8× over a plain surface) with a HTC of 155 kW/m2 °C (∼2.4× over a plain surface) was obtained. Furthermore, close correlation between the boiling performance and the microscale surface morphology in these three categories has been identified.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic representation summarizing enhancement features used in literature—increased surface area [1,2], additional nucleation sites [3,4] (reprinted with permission from Patil and Kandlikar (2014), copyright 2014 Elsevier), separate liquid–vapor pathways [57] (reprinted with permission from Kandlikar (2013), copyright 2013 AIP publishing LLC), wicking [8] (reprinted with permission from Rahman et al. (2014), copyright 2014 American Chemical Society), roughness [9], wettability [10], and microlayer-partitioning [11]

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the three boiling characteristics identified in this study. Type-I: reduced wall superheat; type-II: increased CHF without reduction in wall superheat; and type-III: increased CHF with reduction in wall superheat at higher heat fluxes.

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Fig. 3

Pool boiling experimental setup [5]

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Fig. 4

FTIR spectrum for the screen-printing and electrodeposition samples

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Fig. 5

Pool boiling results for SP-1–SP-4 with distilled water at atmospheric pressure

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Fig. 6

Heat transfer performance curves for the screen-printed samples (SP-1–SP-4)

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Fig. 7

Wicking rates obtained with the screen-printed samples. These surface exhibit poor wickability.

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Fig. 8

(a) Maximum cavity diameter and (b) minimum cavity diameter for the samples as a function of wall superheat using Hsu's model [36]. At higher wall superheats, smaller cavities begin to nucleate which forms the basis of enhancement on these surfaces.

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Fig. 9

Confocal laser scanning images showing range of cavities available for nucleation in the samples. These cavities fall within the range established using Hsu's criterion and nucleate when superheat conditions are met.

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Fig. 10

SEM images of the coated samples at (a) 2 k×, 66 deg tilt, (b) 600×, (c) 5 k× magnification, and (d) elemental analysis. These images confirm the deposition of copper and carbon as seen by the intensity signals in (d).

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Fig. 11

Pool boiling results obtained with CA-1–CA-3 with distilled water at atmospheric pressure

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Fig. 12

SEM images depicting well-strung features on CA-1

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Fig. 13

(a) Pool boiling results obtained with distilled water at atmospheric pressure with GS-1–GS-4 and (b) Heat transfer performance curves

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Fig. 14

CHF trend as a function of wicking number (Wi). High Wi represents a surface with high wickability contributing to increase in CHF.

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Fig. 15

SEM images of the electrodeposited surface using galvanostatic method: (a) dendritic copper structures with underlying GO sheets at 10 k×, 70 deg tilt and (b) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showing copper mapping confirming dendritic structures were made of copper

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