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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Influence of Ambient Airflow on Free Surface Deformation and Flow Pattern Inside Liquid Bridge With Large Prandtl Number Fluid (Pr > 100) Under Gravity

[+] Author and Article Information
Shuo Yang

Key Laboratory of National Education Ministry
for Electromagnetic Process of Materials,
Northeastern University,
Shenyang 110819, China;
School of Horticulture,
Shenyang Agricultural University,
Shenyang 110866, China

Ruquan Liang

Key Laboratory of National Education Ministry
for Electromagnetic Process of Materials,
Northeastern University,
Shenyang 110819, China;
School of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Linyi University,
Linyi 276005, China
e-mail: liang@epm.neu.edu.cn

Song Xiao

School of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering,
Linyi University,
Linyi 276005, China

Jicheng He, Shuo Zhang

Key Laboratory of National Education Ministry
for Electromagnetic Process of Materials,
Northeastern University,
Shenyang 110819, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 7, 2016; final manuscript received May 17, 2017; published online June 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Guihua Tang.

J. Heat Transfer 139(12), 122001 (Jun 27, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1560; doi: 10.1115/1.4036871 History: Received September 07, 2016; Revised May 17, 2017

The influence of airflow shear on the free surface deformation and the flow structure for large Prandtl number fluid (Pr = 111.67) has been analyzed numerically as the parallel airflow shear is induced into the surrounding of liquid bridge from the lower disk or the upper disk. Contrasted with former studies, an improved level set method is adopted to track any tiny deformation of free surface, where the area compensation is carried out to compensate the nonconservation of mass. Present results indicate that the airflow shear can excite flow cells in the isothermal liquid bridge. The airflow shear induced from the upper disk impulses the convex region of free interface as the airflow shear intensity is increased, which may exceed the breaking limit of liquid bridge. The free surface is transformed from the “S”-shape into the “M”-shape as the airflow shear is induced from the lower disk. For the nonisothermal liquid bridge, the flow cell is dominated by the thermocapillary convection at the hot corner if the airflow shear comes from the hot disk, and another reversed flow cell near the cold disk appears. While the shape of free surface depends on the competition between the thermocapillary force and the shear force when the airflow is induced from the cold disk.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of liquid bridge model surrounding by the airflow shear (Γ = 1 and R = 0.5 mm)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of curvature radii in a 3D liquid bridge model

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Fig. 3

Schematic of normal direction of free surface in a 2D liquid bridge model

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Fig. 4

Vertical velocity distribution along the Y axial direction at the position of x = 1.25 with and without considering the dynamic free surface deformation (Pr = 27.86, Ma = 74,384, t = 600, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and 2R = 5 mm)

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Fig. 5

Comparison between numerical results with experimental ones (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, ΔT0 = 0, V = 1, Γ = 1, v = 2 m/s, h = 3 mm, and R = 3 mm)

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Fig. 6

Velocity vectors in the nonisothermal liquid bridge without the airflow shear (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 25)

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Fig. 7

Velocity vectors in the nonisothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the hot (upper) disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 25)

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Fig. 8

Velocity vectors in the isothermal liquid bridge with theairflow shear induced from the lower disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 0)

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Fig. 9

Vertical velocity on the right free surface with the airflow shear induced from the upper disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, and Γ = 1)

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Fig. 10

Inflection point of outermost streamline of surface flow (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, and Γ = 1)

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Fig. 11

Vertical velocity on the right free surface of isothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the lower disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 0)

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Fig. 12

(a) Vertical velocity on the right free surface of nonisothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the cold (lower) disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, ΔT0 = 25, and v = 0; v = 0.25; v = 0.5). (b) Vertical velocity on the right free surface of nonisothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the cold (lower) disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, ΔT0 = 25, and v = 1.00; v = 1.25; v = 1.5).

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Fig. 13

Deformation of right dynamic free surface in the isothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the upper disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 0)

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Fig. 14

Deformation of right dynamic free surface in the nonisothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the upper disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 25)

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Fig. 15

Variation of pressure difference and surface tension

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Fig. 16

Deformation of right dynamic free surface in the isothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the lower disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 0)

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Fig. 17

Deformation of right dynamic free surface in the nonisothermal liquid bridge with the airflow shear induced from the lower disk (Pr = 111.67, g = 9.81 m/s2, Γ = 1, and ΔT0 = 25)

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