0
Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Supercritical Hydrocarbon Fuel in Mini Channels With Dimples

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Feng

Shenzhen Graduate School,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
University Town of Shenzhen,
Shenzhen 518055, China
e-mail: fengyu85@hit.edu.cn

Jie Cao

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: CaoJie_971@163.com

Xin Li

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: dandelion_hit@163.com

Silong Zhang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: zslhrb@gmail.com

Jiang Qin

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
No. 92, West Da-Zhi Street,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: qinjiang@hit.edu.cn

Yu Rao

Gas Turbine Research Institute,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yurao@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 20, 2016; final manuscript received June 1, 2017; published online August 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Heat Transfer 139(12), 122401 (Aug 09, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1762; doi: 10.1115/1.4037086 History: Received November 20, 2016; Revised June 01, 2017

An idea of using dimples as heat transfer enhancement device in a regenerative cooling passage is proposed to extend the cooling limits for liquid-propellant rocket and scramjet. Numerical studies have been conducted to investigate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical hydrocarbon fuel in a rectangular cooling channel with dimples applied to the bottom wall. The numerical model is validated through experimental data and accounts for real fuel properties at supercritical pressures. The study shows that the dimples can significantly enhance the convective heat transfer and reduce the heated wall temperature. The average heat transfer rate of the dimpled channel is 1.64 times higher than that of its smooth counterpart while the pressure drop in the dimpled channel is only 1.33 times higher than that of the smooth channel. Furthermore, the thermal stratification in a regenerative cooling channel is alleviated by using dimples. Although heat transfer deterioration of supercritical fluid flow in the trans-critical region cannot be eliminated in the dimpled channel, it can be postponed and greatly weakened. The strong variations of fuel properties are responsible for the local acceleration of fuel and variation of heat transfer performance along the cooling channel.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Huzel, D. K. , and Huang, D. H. , 1992, “ Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines,” Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Vol. 147, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Washington, DC.
Harper, B. , Merkle, C. L. , Li, D. , and Sankaran, V. , 2004, “ Analysis of Regen Cooling in Rocket Combustors,” 52nd JANNAF Joint Propulsion Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, May 10–14. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20040075891.pdf
Coulbert, C. D. , 1964, “ Selecting Cooling Techniques for Liquid Rockets for Spacecraft,” J. Spacecr. Rockets, 1(2), pp. 129–139. [CrossRef]
Zhong, F. , Fan, X. , Yu, G. , Li, J. , and Sung, C. J. , 2011, “ Thermal Cracking and Heat Sink Capacity of Aviation Kerosene Under Supercritical Conditions,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 25(6), pp. 1226–1232.
Xu, K. , and Meng, H. , 2016, “ Numerical Study of Fluid Flows and Heat Transfer of Aviation Kerosene With Consideration of Fuel Pyrolysis and Surface Coking at Supercritical Pressures,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 95, pp. 806–814. [CrossRef]
Hendricks, R. C. , Graham, R. W. , Hsu, Y. Y. , and Freidman, R. , 1966, “ Experimental Heat-Transfer Results for Cryogenic Hydrogen Flowing in Tubes at Subcritical and Supercritical Pressures to 800 Pounds Per Square Inch Absolute,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA TN D-3095.
Shiralkar, B. S. , and Griffith, P. , 1969, “ Deterioration in Heat Transfer to Fluids at Supercritical Pressure and High Heat Fluxes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 91(1), pp. 27–36. [CrossRef]
Koshizuka, S. , Takano, N. , and Oka, Y. , 1995, “ Numerical Analysis of Deterioration Phenomena in Heat Transfer to Supercritical Water,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(16), pp. 3077–3084. [CrossRef]
Zhou, W. , Bao, W. , Qin, J. , and Qu, Y. , 2011, “ Deterioration in Heat Transfer of Endothermal Hydrocarbon Fuel,” J. Therm. Sci., 20(2), pp. 173–180. [CrossRef]
Zhang, S. , Qin, J. , Xie, K. , Feng, Y. , and Bao, W. , 2015, “ Thermal Behavior Inside Scramjet Cooling Channels at Different Channel Aspect Ratios,” J. Propul. Power, 32(1), pp. 57–70. [CrossRef]
Duffey, R. B. , and Pioro, I. L. , 2005, “ Experimental Heat Transfer of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Flowing Inside Channels (Survey),” Nucl. Eng. Des., 235(8), pp. 913–924. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. H. , and Howell, J. R. , 1998, “ Turbulent Developing Convective Heat Transfer in a Tube for Fluids Near the Critical Point,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(10), pp. 1205–1218. [CrossRef]
Hitch, B. , and Karpuk, M. , 1997, “ Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer and Flow Instabilities in Supercritical Fuels,” AIAA Paper No. 1997-3043.
Zhang, C. , Xu, G. , Gao, L. , Tao, Z. , Deng, H. , and Zhu, K. , 2012, “ Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer of a Specific Fuel (RP-3) Flows Through Downward Tubes at Supercritical Pressure,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 72, pp. 90–99. [CrossRef]
Ulas, A. , and Boysan, E. , 2013, “ Numerical Analysis of Regenerative Cooling in Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol., 24(1), pp. 187–197. [CrossRef]
Pizzarelli, M. , Nasuti, F. , and Onofri, M. , 2012, “ CFD Analysis of Transcritical Methane in Rocket Engine Cooling Channels,” J. Supercrit. Fluids, 62, pp. 79–87. [CrossRef]
Pizzarelli, M. , Nasuti, F. , and Onofri, M. , 2008, “ Flow Analysis of Transcritical Methane in Rectangular Cooling Channels,” AIAA Paper No. 2008-4556.
Chung, J. N. , Tully, L. , Kim, J. H. , Jones, G. W. , and Watkins, W. , 2006, “ Evaluation of Open Cell Foam Heat Transfer Enhancement for Liquid Rocket Engine,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-5050.
Xu, K. , Tang, L. , and Meng, H. , 2015, “ Numerical Study of Supercritical-Pressure Fluid Flows and Heat Transfer of Methane in Ribbed Cooling Tubes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 84, pp. 346–358. [CrossRef]
Ligrani, P. M. , Oliveira, M. M. , and Blaskovich, T. , 2003, “ Comparison of Heat Transfer Augmentation Techniques,” AIAA J., 41(3), pp. 337–362. [CrossRef]
Rao, Y. , Li, B. , and Feng, Y. , 2015, “ Heat Transfer of Turbulent Flow Over Surfaces With Spherical Dimples and Teardrop Dimples,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Science, 61, pp. 201–209. [CrossRef]
Rao, Y. , Feng, Y. , Li, B. , and Weigand, B. , 2015, “ Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer and Flow Friction in Channels With Dimples of Different Shapes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(3), p. 031901. [CrossRef]
Coy, E. B. , and Danczyz, S. A. , 2011, “ Measurements of the Effectiveness of Concave Spherical Dimples for Enhancement Heat Transfer,” J. Propul. Power, 27(5), pp. 955–958. [CrossRef]
Afanasyev, V. N. , Chudnovsky, Y. P. , Leontiev, A. I. , and Roganov, P. S. , 1993, “ Turbulent Flow Friction and Heat Transfer Characteristics for Spherical Cavities on a Flat Plate,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 7(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Chyu, M. K. , Yu, Y. , Ding, H. , Downs, J. P. , and Soechting, F. O. , 1997, “ Concavity Enhanced Heat Transfer in an Internal Cooling Passage,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-437.
Lan, J. , Xie, Y. , and Zhang, D. , 2012, “ Flow and Heat Transfer in Microchannels With Dimples and Protrusions,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 134(2), p. 021901. [CrossRef]
Moon, H. K. , O'Conncll, T. O. , and Glezer, B. , 1999, “ Channel Height Effect on Heat Transfer and Friction in a Dimpled Passage,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-163.
Ligrani, P. M. , Harrison, J. L. , Mahmmod, G. I. , and Hill, M. L. , 2001, “ Flow Structure Due to Dimple Depressions on a Channel Surface,” Phys. Fluids, 13(11), pp. 3442–3451. [CrossRef]
Choi, E. Y. , Choi, Y. D. , and Kwak, J. S. , 2013, “ Effect of Dimple Configuration on Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Rib-Dimpled Channel,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 27(4), pp. 653–659. [CrossRef]
Xie, G. , Liu, J. , Ligrani, P. M. , and Zhang, W. , 2013, “ Numerical Analysis of Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Square Channels With Different Internal-Protruded Dimple Geometrics,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 67, pp. 81–97. [CrossRef]
Mahmood, G. I. , and Ligrani, P. M. , 2002, “ Heat Transfer in a Dimpled Channel: Combined Influences of Aspect Ratio, Temperature Ratio, Reynolds Number, and Flow Structure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(10), pp. 2011–2020. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Chen, Z. , and Meng, H. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of Conjugate Heat Transfer of Cryogenic Methane in Rectangular Engine Cooling Channels at Supercritical Pressures,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 54(1), pp. 237–246. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2013, “ Fluent Manual v.13,” ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Bardina, J. E. , Huang, P. G. , and Coakley, T. , 1997, “ Turbulence Modeling Validation,” AIAA Paper No. 1997-2121.
Ruan, B. , and Meng, H. , 2012, “ Supercritical Heat Transfer of Cryogenic-Propellant Methane in Rectangular Engine Cooling Channels,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 26(2), pp. 313–321. [CrossRef]
Kim, S. K. , Choi, H. S. , and Kim, Y. , 2012, “ Thermodynamic Modeling Based on a Generalized Cubic Equation of State for Kerosene/Lox Rocket Combustion,” Combust. Flame, 159(3), pp. 1351–1365. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. Z. , Hua, Y. X. , and Meng, H. , 2010, “ Numerical Studies of Supercritical Turbulent Convective Heat Transfer of Cryogenic-Propellant Methane,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 24(3), pp. 490–500. [CrossRef]
Chung, T. H. , Ajlan, M. , Lee, L. L. , and Starling, K. E. , 1988, “ Generalized Multiparameter Correlation for Nonpolar and Polar Fluid Transport Properties,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 27(4), pp. 671–679. [CrossRef]
NIST, 2011, “ Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems,” NIST Chemistry WebBook, Standard Reference Database #69, P. J. Linstrom , and W. G. Mallard , eds., National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
Woschnak, A. , Suslov, D. , and Oschwald, M. , 2003, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Thermal Stratification Effects,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-4615.
Hunt, G. R. , Cooper, P. , and Linden, P. F. , 2001, “ Thermal Stratification Produced by Plumes and Jets in Enclosed Spaces,” Build. Environ., 36(7), pp. 871–882. [CrossRef]
Pizzarelli, M. , Urbano, A. , and Nasuti, F. , 2010, “ Numerical Analysis of Deterioration in Heat Transfer to Near-Critical Rocket Propellants,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 57(5), pp. 297–314. [CrossRef]
Isaev, S. A. , Leont'ev, A. I. , Baranov, P. A. , and Pyshnyi, I. A. , 2003, “ Numerical Analysis of the Influence of the Depth of a Spherical Hole on a Plane Wall on Turbulent Heat Exchange,” J. Eng. Phys. Thermophys., 76(1), pp. 61–69. [CrossRef]
Zhou, W. , Rao, Y. , and Hu, H. , 2015, “ An Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Flows Over a Dimpled Surface,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 138(2), p. 021204. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of dimple geometry on the interior bottom wall of the channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of cooling channels in a regenerative cooling system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Validation of property calculation: (a) density, (b) specific heat capacity, (c) viscosity, and (d) thermal conductivity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison between experimental and numerical solved Nusselt number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison between experimental and numerical solved friction factor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature distribution at different streamwise locations along the dimpled and smooth channels: (a) dimpled channel and (b) smooth channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Density distribution at different streamwise locations along the dimpled and smooth channels: (a) dimpled channel and (b) smooth channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Structured grids near the dimpled surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of cross-sectional grid for five test cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Convergence history of average temperature and velocity at the outlet for five test cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Thermal conductivity distribution at different streamwise locations along the dimpled and smooth channels: (a) dimpled channel and (b) smooth channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Specific heat capacity distribution at different streamwise locations along the dimpled and smooth channels: (a) dimpled channel and (b) smooth channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Streamlines in the cross-sectional plane (the flow direction is into the paper)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Bulk fluid temperature and exterior wall temperature (at the centerline of the heated wall) distribution along the cooling channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Streamwise heat transfer rate along the channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Streamlines in the vicinity of dimples (a) and local heat transfer rate distribution on the dimpled surface (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Streamwise velocity at vertical line through the dimple center

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In