Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

On Temporal Biphilicity: Definition, Relevance, and Technical Implementation in Boiling Heat Transfer

[+] Author and Article Information
Christophe Frankiewicz

Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: franki@iastate.edu

Daniel Attinger

Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: attinger@iastate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 1, 2016; final manuscript received June 23, 2017; published online August 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Satish G. Kandlikar.

J. Heat Transfer 139(11), 111511 (Aug 01, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1484; doi: 10.1115/1.4037162 History: Received August 01, 2016; Revised June 23, 2017

Solid–fluid interfaces switching from a superhydrophilic to a superhydrophobic wetting state are desired for their ability to control and enhance phase-change heat transfer. Typically, these functional surfaces are fabricated from polymers and modify their chemistry or texture upon the application of a stimulus. For integration in relevant phase-change heat transfer applications, several challenges need to be overcome, of chemical stability, mechanical and thermal robustness, as well as large scale manufacturing. Here, we describe the design and fabrication of metallic surfaces that reversibly switch between hydrophilic and superhydrophobic states, in response to pressure and temperature stimuli. Characterization of the surfaces in pool boiling experiments verifies their thermal and mechanical robustness, and the fabrication method is scalable to large areas. During pool boiling experiments, it is experimentally demonstrated that the functional surfaces can be actively switched between a high-efficiency mode suitable at low heat flux, and a high-power mode suitable for high heat flux applications.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Gil, E. , and Hudson, S. , 2004, “ Stimuli-Responsive Polymers and Their Bioconjugates,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 29(12), pp. 1173–1222. [CrossRef]
Daniel, S. , Chaudhury, M. K. , and Chen, J. C. , 2001, “ Fast Drop Movements Resulting From the Phase Change on a Gradient Surface,” Science, 291(5504), pp. 633–636. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ghosh, A. , Ganguly, R. , Schutzius, T. M. , and Megaridis, C. M. , 2014, “ Wettability Patterning for High-Rate, Pumpless Fluid Transport on Open, Non-Planar Microfluidic Platforms,” Lab Chip, 14(9), pp. 1538–1550. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Thevenin, R. , Wu, L. Z. , Keller, P. , Cohen, R. E. , Clanet, C. , and Quere, D. , 2013, “ New Thermal-Sensitive Superhydrophobic Material,” American Physical Society 66th Annual DFD Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. 24–26, Abstract No. A7.00001.
Chen, B. , Zhou, Z. , Shi, J. X. , Schafer, S. R. , and Chen, C. L. , 2015, “ Flooded Two-Phase Flow Dynamics and Heat Transfer With Engineered Wettability on Microstructured Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(9), p. 091021. [CrossRef]
Ji, Y. L. , Li, G. , Sun, Y. Q. , and Ma, H. B. , 2015, “ Wettability Control of VACNT Array Through Atmospheric Plasma Treatment,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(2), p. 020903. [CrossRef]
Liu, L. , and Jacobi, A. M. , 2009, “ Air-Side Surface Wettability Effects on the Performance of Slit-Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Operating Under Wet-Surface Conditions,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 131(5), p. 051802. [CrossRef]
Son, S. Y. , and Allen, J. S. , 2004, “ Visualization of Wettability Effects on Microchannel Two-Phase Flow Resistance,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 126(4), p. 498. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. H. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1993, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115(3), pp. 659–669. [CrossRef]
Peles, Y. , and Wang, E. N. , 2014, “ Preface,” Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 18(3), pp. 195–196. [CrossRef]
McCarthy, M. , Gerasopoulos, K. , Maroo, S. C. , and Hart, A. J. , 2014, “ Materials, Fabrication, and Manufacturing of Micro/Nanostructured Surfaces for Phase-Change Heat Transfer Enhancement,” Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 18(3), pp. 288–310. [CrossRef]
Attinger, D. , Frankiewicz, C. , Betz, A. R. , Schutzius, T. M. , Ganguly, R. , Das, A. , Kim, C. J. , and Megaridis, C. M. , 2014, “ Surface Engineering for Phase Change Heat Transfer: A Review,” MRS Energy Sustainability, 1, p. E4. [CrossRef]
Das, S. , and Mitra, S. K. , 2013, “ Different Regimes in Vertical Capillary Filling,” Phys. Rev. E, 87(6), p. 063005. [CrossRef]
Farhadi, S. , Farzaneh, M. , and Kulinich, S. A. , 2011, “ Anti-Icing Performance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 257(14), pp. 6264–6269. [CrossRef]
Derby, M. M. , Chatterjee, A. , Peles, Y. , and Jensen, M. K. , 2014, “ Flow Condensation Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Mini-Channel With Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Patterns,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 68, pp. 151–160. [CrossRef]
Li, C. , Wang, Z. , Wang, P.-I. , Peles, Y. , Koratkar, N. , and Peterson, G. P. , 2008, “ Nanostructured Copper Interfaces for Enhanced Boiling,” Small, 4(8), pp. 1084–1088. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Betz, A. R. , Zhang, H. , Chen, W. , and Attinger, D. , 2010, “ Microfluidic Formation of Monodispersed Spherical Microgels Composed of Triple-Network Crosslinking,” ASME Paper No. FEDSM-ICNMM2010-30717.
Betz, A. R. , Jenkins, J. , Kim, C.-J. , and Attinger, D. , 2013, “ Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 57(2), pp. 733–741. [CrossRef]
Van Dyke, A. S. , Collard, D. , Derby, M. M. , and Betz, A. R. , 2015, “ Droplet Coalescence and Freezing on Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, and Biphilic Surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 107(14), p. 141602. [CrossRef]
Fazeli, A. , Mortazavi, M. , and Moghaddam, S. , 2015, “ Hierarchical Biphilic Micro/Nanostructures for a New Generation Phase-Change Heat Sink,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 78, pp. 380–386. [CrossRef]
Kosar, A. , Kuo, C. J. , and Peles, Y. , 2006, “ Suppression of Boiling Flow Oscillations in Parallel Microchannels by Inlet Restrictors,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 128(3), pp. 251–260. [CrossRef]
Xia, F. , Zhu, Y. , Feng, L. , and Jiang, L. , 2009, “ Smart Responsive Surfaces Switching Reversibly Between Super-Hydrophobicity and Super-Hydrophilicity,” Soft Matter, 5(2), pp. 275–281. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. , Sun, T. , and Teja, A. S. , 2016, “ Density, Viscosity, and Thermal Conductivity of Eight Carboxylic Acids From (290.3 to 473.4) K,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 61(8), pp. 2651–2658. [CrossRef]
Lahann, J. , Mitragotri, S. , Tran, T.-N. , Kaido, H. , Sundaram, J. , Choi, I. S. , Hoffer, S. , Somorjai, G. A. , and Langer, R. , 2003, “ A Reversibly Switching Surface,” Science, 299(5605), pp. 371–374. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Price, D. M. , and Jarratt, M. , 2002, “ Thermal Conductivity of PTFE and PTFE Composites,” Thermochim. Acta, 392–393, pp. 231–236. [CrossRef]
Krupenkin, T. N. , Taylor, J. A. , Schneider, T. M. , and Yang, S. , 2004, “ From Rolling Ball to Complete Wetting: The Dynamic Tuning of Liquids on Nanostructured Surfaces,” Langmuir, 20(10), pp. 3824–3827. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Avloni, J. , Florio, L. , Henn, A. , and Sparavigna, A. , 2007, “ Thermal Electric Effects and Heat Generation in Polypyrrole Coated PET Fabrics,” e-print arXiv:0706.3697.
Xu, L. , Chen, W. , Mulchandani, A. , and Yan, Y. , 2005, “ Reversible Conversion of Conducting Polymer Films From Superhydrophobic to Superhydrophilic,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 44(37), pp. 6009–6012. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sun, T. , Wang, G. , Feng, L. , Liu, B. , Ma, Y. , Jiang, L. , and Zhu, D. , 2004, “ Reversible Switching Between Superhydrophilicity and Superhydrophobicity,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 43(3), pp. 357–360. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fu, Q. , Rama Rao, G. V. , Basame, S. B. , Keller, D. J. , Artyushkova, K. , Fulghum, J. E. , and López, G. P. , 2004, “ Reversible Control of Free Energy and Topography of Nanostructured Surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(29), pp. 8904–8905. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ichimura, K. , Oh, S.-K. , and Nakagawa, M. , 2000, “ Light-Driven Motion of Liquids on a Photoresponsive Surface,” Science, 288(5471), pp. 1624–1626. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Abdel-Rahman, M. , Ilahi, S. , Zia, M. F. , Alduraibi, M. , Debbar, N. , Yacoubi, N. , and Ilahi, B. , 2015, “ Temperature Coefficient of Resistance and Thermal Conductivity of Vanadium Oxide ‘Big Mac’ Sandwich Structure,” Infrared Phys. Technol., 71, pp. 127–130. [CrossRef]
Lim, H. S. , Kwak, D. , Lee, D. Y. , Lee, S. G. , and Cho, K. , 2007, “ UV-Driven Reversible Switching of a Roselike Vanadium Oxide Film Between Superhydrophobicity and Superhydrophilicity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129(14), pp. 4128–4129. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Powell, R. W. , Ho, C. Y. , and Liley, P. E. , 1966, “ Thermal Conductivity of Selected Materials,” National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Washington, DC.
Lai, Y. , Lin, C. , Wang, H. , Huang, J. , Zhuang, H. , and Sun, L. , 2008, “ Superhydrophilic–Superhydrophobic Micropattern on TiO2 Nanotube Films by Photocatalytic Lithography,” Electrochem. Commun., 10(3), pp. 387–391. [CrossRef]
Xu, Q. F. , Liu, Y. , Lin, F. J. , Mondal, B. , and Lyons, A. M. , 2013, “ Superhydrophobic TiO2-Polymer Nanocomposite Surface With UV-Induced Reversible Wettability and Self-Cleaning Properties,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 5(18), pp. 8915–8924. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kwak, K. , and Kim, C. , 2005, “ Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of Copper Oxide Nanofluid Dispersed in Ethylene Glycol,” Korea-Australia Rheol. J., 17(2), pp. 35–40.
Yu, X. , Wang, Z. , Jiang, Y. , Shi, F. , and Zhang, X. , 2005, “ Reversible pH-Responsive Surface: From Superhydrophobicity to Superhydrophilicity,” Adv. Mater., 17(10), pp. 1289–1293. [CrossRef]
Cho, H. J. , Mizerak, J. P. , and Wang, E. N. , 2015, “ Turning Bubbles On and Off During Boiling Using Charged Surfactants,” Nat. Commun., 6, p. 8599. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Marlino, L. D. , 2007, “ Technology and Cost of the Model Year (MY) 2007 Toyota Camry HEV-Final Report,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. ORNL/TM-2007/132.
Frankiewicz, C. , and Attinger, D. , 2015, “ Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves,” Nanoscale, 6, pp. 3982–3990.
Williams, K. R. , Gupta, K. , and Wasilik, M. , 2003, “ Etch Rates for Micromachining Processing—Part II,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 12(6), pp. 761–778. [CrossRef]
Yao, X. , Chen, Q. , Xu, L. , Li, Q. , Song, Y. , Gao, X. , Quéré, D. , and Jiang, L. , 2010, “ Bioinspired Ribbed Nanoneedles With Robust Superhydrophobicity,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 20(4), pp. 656–662. [CrossRef]
Wang, S.-B. , Hsiao, C.-H. , Chang, S.-J. , Lam, K.-T. , Wen, K.-H. , Young, S.-J. , Hung, S.-C. , and Huang, B.-R. , 2012, “ CuO Nanowire-Based Humidity Sensor,” IEEE Sens. J., 12(6), pp. 1884–1888. [CrossRef]
Nam, Y. , Aktinol, E. , Dhir, V. K. , and Ju, Y. S. , 2011, “ Single Bubble Dynamics on a Superhydrophilic Surface With Artificial Nucleation Sites,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(7–8), pp. 1572–1577. [CrossRef]
Liaw, S. P. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1986, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Transition Boiling Heat Transfer From a Vertical Surface,” Eighth International Heat Transfer Conference, San Francisco, CA, Aug. 17–22, pp. 2031–2036.
Schneider, C. A. , Rasband, W. S. , and Eliceiri, K. W. , 2012, “ NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 Years of Image Analysis,” Nat. Methods, 9(7), pp. 671–675. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
de Gennes, P. , Brochard-Wyart, F. , and Quéré, D. , 2004, Capillarity and Wetting Phenomena: Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves, Springer, New York. [CrossRef]
Freeman, R. , Houck, A. C. , and Kim, C. J. , 2015, “ Visualization of Self-Limiting Electrochemical Gas Generation to Recover Underwater Superhydrophobicity,” 18th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, (TRANSDUCERS), Anchorage, AK, June 21–25, pp. 1818–1821.
Jones, P. R. , Hao, X. , Cruz-Chu, E. R. , Rykaczewski, K. , Nandy, K. , Schutzius, T. M. , Varanasi, K. K. , Megaridis, C. M. , Walther, J. H. , Koumoutsakos, P. , Espinosa, H. D. , and Patankar, N. A. , 2015, “ Sustaining Dry Surfaces Under Water,” Sci. Rep., 5(1), p. 12311. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Feng, L. , Zhang, Y. , Xi, J. , Zhu, Y. , Wang, N. , Xia, F. , and Jiang, L. , 2008, “ Petal Effect: A Superhydrophobic State With High Adhesive Force,” Langmuir, 24(8), pp. 4114–4119. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Barthlott, W. , and Neinhuis, C. , 1997, “ Purity of the Sacred Lotus, or Escape From Contamination in Biological Surfaces,” Planta, 202(1), pp. 1–8. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. M. , Olceroglu, E. , and McCarthy, M. , 2014, “ Role of Wickability on the Critical Heat Flux of Structured Superhydrophilic Surfaces,” Langmuir, 30(37), pp. 11225–11234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ahn, H. S. , Lee, C. , Kim, J. , and Kim, M. H. , 2012, “ The Effect of Capillary Wicking Action of Micro/Nano Structures on Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(1–3), pp. 89–92. [CrossRef]
Liu, T. L. , and Kim, C. J. , 2014, “ Turning a Surface Superrepellent Even to Completely Wetting Liquids,” Science, 346(6213), pp. 1096–1100. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lembach, A. N. , Tan, H. B. , Roisman, I. V. , Gambaryan-Roisman, T. , Zhang, Y. , Tropea, C. , and Yarin, A. L. , 2010, “ Drop Impact, Spreading, Splashing, and Penetration Into Electrospun Nanofiber Mats,” Langmuir, 26(12), pp. 9516–9523. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The hypothesis underlying this work is that an engineered surface (on the left) optimized for phase-change heat transfer matches the optimum features of phase-change heat transfer (on the right, commented in introduction), in a similar way as a key matches a lock (center). For example, the left picture, reproduced with permission from Ref. [18], is a multiscale surface with spatial patterns of wettability, which optimizes nucleate boiling. Image of key licensed under the creative commons attribution-share Alike 3.0 unported license.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Multiscale texture and chemistry of the engineered E2 and EA surfaces. The surfaces EA and E2 are composed of three and two tiers of roughness, respectively. The chemistry of the surface EA is CuO and the chemistry of the surface E2 is Cu, as reported in a previous work [41].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The surface (EA on these pictures) can reversibly transition from a superhydrophobic metastable CB state to a hydrophilic stable W state. The stimulus triggering this transition can be reversibly controlled. Flooding of the cavities can be controlled by either diffusion of air inside the bulk liquid if the surface is immersed or by increasing the pressure in the liquid above the surface beyond the value of the break-in pressure. Filling the cavities with air or vapor can either be controlled by evaporation in air or by succinctly reaching the CHF.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The functional surfaces (here EA, see the Appendix for similar results on E2) were integrated in a pressure-controlled boiler (see figure on the left for details about the apparatus). The pool boiling curves on the right show the possibility to adapt the surface performances to the power needs depending on wetting state of the surface (W for high CHF, CB for high HTC). No hysteresis in the boiling curve has been observed on all surfaces as long as the heat flux provided to the surface is maintained below the CHF. Error bars are based on an uncertainty analysis; see Sec. A.3 of Appendix, which also describes the packaging of the boiling surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Surfaces EA and E2 can repeatedly and reversibly respond to a change in pressure or temperature conditions and adapt their wettability, as described in the table, right. Note that the wettability transitions are fast and can be done in approximately 30 s. The transitions from the W to the CB state and from the CB to the W state were triggered by a change in temperature and pressure conditions, respectively. The error bars indicate the range of contact angle measured on the surface.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Summary (left table) of the performances obtained in pool boiling. The CHF is correlated to the ability of the surface to wick. The wicked volume flux was obtained by measuring the initial velocity of the meniscus inside the capillary tube (external diameter 500 μm) and the wetted area Aw. The surfaces EA and E2 reached a CHF close to the maximum value of the CHF predicted by the value of the wicked volume flux [53]. By using functional surfaces, the CHF can be enhanced by a factor 1.4 and the HTC by up to 18 times compared to the values of a bare copper surface. Functional surfaces can both result in a significant energy saving and help delaying the occurrence of the CHF.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Boiling curve of the sample E2. The figure shows the possibility to adapt the performance of surface E2 to the power needs depending on the wetting state of the surface (W for high CHF, CB for high HTC).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Evolution of the transition from the metastable hydrophobic CB to the stable W hydrophilic state. The hydrophobic surface is naturally covered by a vapor layer (highly reflective to light) trapped into the surface texture and which progressively diffuses into water by either natural diffusion into the bulk (see top sequence of image on surface E2) or by applying on the surface a sufficient pressure, superior to the break-in pressure, until complete flooding of the cavities.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Reversible transition in boiling from the metastable hydrophobic CB to the stable W hydrophilic state. In the superhydrophobic state, the surface is almost entirely covered with a vapor layer that facilitates the nucleation process. In the hydrophilic wetting state, cavities are filled with water and are less active. Therefore, the size of the bubbles formed on the hydrophobic surfaces in the CB state is larger compared to the size (or volume) of the bubbles produced on the hydrophilic surface in the W state. The time of growth of the bubble to departure does not seem to be correlated with the wetting state.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Mechanistic model used to predict the break-in pressure and the contact angle as a function of the number of tiers on the surface and by assuming that only tier 0 is wetted

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Evolution of the contact angle and break-in pressure as a function of the number of tiers wetted and assuming that only tier 0 is wetted

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Repeated boiling curve of the sample EA, run 3 times following the sequence: Dry run 1, wet run 1, dry run 2, wet run 2, dry run 3. These boiling curves show the excellent reproducibility of the results in pool boiling conditions. This experiment also is, to some extent, a gauge of the durability of the sample.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Schematic (cross-sectional side view) of the sample packaging as prepared for pool boiling experiments. The engineered copper samples typically are ≈10 mm (length) × 10 mm (width) × 3 mm (depth). The thermocouple hole is located 1.5 mm below the boiling surface and is 1.6 mm deep inside the copper sample. A tiny air gap (about 1 mm thick) is intentionally kept underneath the heater to prevent any heat loss though conduction to the Teflon block. Note that Teflon is also a relatively good insulating material with a thermal conductivity of ≈0.25 W/m K. The epoxy also has a low thermal conductivity of ≈0.180 W/m K as per 3 M data sheets (DP 420 black epoxy).




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In