Research Papers: Forced Convection

On Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Dynamics Through a Straight T-Bifurcating Channel

[+] Author and Article Information
Lakehal Abdelhak

Université des Sciences et de la
Technologie Houari Boumediene,
PB 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algeria
e-mail: lakabdelhak@hotmail.com

Nait-Bouda Nora

Université des Sciences et de la
Technologie Houari Boumediene,
PB 32 El Alia,
Bab Ezzouar 16111, Alger, Algeria
e-mail: n.naitbouda@yahoo.fr

Pelle Julien

Université de Valenciennes
et du Hainaut-Cambrésis,
Valenciennes CEDEX 9,
Famars 59313, France
e-mail: Julien.Pelle@univ-valenciennes.fr

Harmand Souad

Université de Valenciennes
et du Hainaut-Cambrésis,
Valenciennes CEDEX 9,
Famars 59313, France
e-mail: Souad.Harmand@univ-valenciennes.fr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 10, 2015; final manuscript received June 19, 2017; published online October 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Milind A. Jog.

J. Heat Transfer 140(3), 031701 (Oct 10, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-15-1718; doi: 10.1115/1.4037208 History: Received November 10, 2015; Revised June 19, 2017

Both experimental and numerical studies of a turbulent flow in a bifurcating channel are performed to characterize the dynamical behavior of the flow and its impact on the convective heat transfer on the sides of the branch. This configuration corresponds to the radial vents placed in the stator vertically to the rotor–stator air gap in the electrical machines. Indeed, our analysis focuses on the local convective heat transfer on the vents internal surface under a turbulent mass flow rate. The flow field measurements were carried out with two components particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, and the local heat transfer on the sides of the bifurcation branch was measured using an infrared thermography device. The convective heat transfer and the flow dynamics through the geometry are investigated numerically considering a three-dimensional (3D) flow. The closure system of the Navier–Stokes equations for steady and incompressible flow is based on the low-Reynolds numbers Reynolds stress model (RSM) (RSM-stress-ω). The comparison of the 3D computed results with the measurements in the xy symmetry plane is satisfactory in the vertical and horizontal channels. The numerical prediction of the secondary flow in the vertical branch was analyzed and complements the experimental results. It was particularly noticed that the accelerated flow observed at the right side of the branch's inlet allows more pronounced heat transfer comparatively to the left side. Beyond approximately 7 hydraulic diameters from the entrance of the branch, the Nusselt number curves on the two sides of the branch tend to be the same developed Nusselt number, Nud.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Valenzuela, M. A. , and Tapia, J. A. , 2008, “ Heat Transfer and Thermal Design of Finned Frames for TEFC Variable-Speed Motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 55(10), pp. 3500–3508. [CrossRef]
Seghir-OualiI, S. , Harmand, S. , and Laloy, D. , 2009, “ Study of the Thermal Behavior of a Synchronous Motor With Permanent Magnets,” Int. J. Eng., 10(6), pp. 455–476.
Hayes, R. E. , Nandakumar, K. , and Nasr-El-Din, H. , 1989, “ Steady Laminar Flow in a 90 Degree Planar Branch,” Comput. Fluids, 17(4), pp. 537–553. [CrossRef]
Nearyt, V. S. , and Sotiropoulos, F. , 1996, “ Numerical Investigation of Laminar Flows Through 90-Degree Diversions of Rectangular Cross-Section,” Comput. Fluids, 25(2), pp. 95–118. [CrossRef]
Hoagland, L. C. , 1961, “ Turbulent Flow in Straight Rectangular Ducts-Secondary Flow, Its Cause and Effect on the Primary Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Demuren, A. O. , and Rodi, W. , 1984, “ Calculation of Turbulence-Driven Secondary Motion in Non-Circular Ducts,” J. Fluid Mech., 140, pp. 189–222. [CrossRef]
Liepsch, M. S. , Rastogi, A. K. , and Vlachos, N. S. , 1982, “ Measurement and Calculation of Laminar Flow in a Ninety Degree Bifurcation,” J. Biomech., 15(7), pp. 473–485. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Khodadadi, J. M. , 1991, “ Wall Pressure and Shear Stress Variations in a 90-deg Bifurcation During Pulsatile Laminar Flow,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 113(1), pp. 111–115. [CrossRef]
Travers, T. G. , and Worek, W. M. , 1996, “ Laminar Fluid Flow in a Planar 90° Bifurcation With and Without a Protruding Branching Duct,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 118(1), pp. 81–84. [CrossRef]
Boizumault, F. , Harmand, S. , and Desmet, B. , 1999, “ Local Convective Heat Transfer Past the Junction of Channels of Rectangular Cross-Section,” Exp. Fluids, 27(5), pp. 400–407. [CrossRef]
El-Shaboury, A. M. F. , Soliman, H. M. , and Ormiston, S. J. , 2002, “ Laminar Forced Convection in Two-Dimensional Equal-Sided and Reduced Branching Ducts,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 42(5), pp. 487–512. [CrossRef]
El-Shaboury, A. M. F. , Soliman, H. M. , and Ormiston, S. J. , 2003, “ Performance Evaluation of Branch in Grand Impacting Tee Junctions for Laminar Forced-Convection Applications,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 42(7), pp. 713–723. [CrossRef]
Hirota, M. , Asano, H. , Nakayama, H. , Asano, T. , and Hirayama, S. , 2006, “ Three Dimensional Structure of Turbulent Flow in Mixing T-Junction,” JSME Int. J. Ser. B, 49(4), pp. 1070–1077. [CrossRef]
Ming, T. , and Zhao, J. , 2012, “ Large-Eddy Simulation of Thermal Fatigue in a Mixing Tee,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 37, pp. 93–108. [CrossRef]
Naik-Nimbalkar, V. , Patwardhan, A. , Banjeree, I. , Padmakumar, G. , and Vaidyanathan, G. , 2010, “ Thermal Mixing in T-Junctions,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 65(22), pp. 5901–5911. [CrossRef]
Pollard, A. , 1981, “ Computer Modeling of Flow in Tee-Junctions,” Phys. Chem. Hydrodyn., 2, pp. 203–227.
Khodadadi, J. M. , Nguyen, T. M. , and Vlachos, N. S. , 1986, “ Laminar Forced Convective Heat Transfer in a Two-Dimensional 90° Bifurcation,” Numer. Heat Transfer, 9(6), pp. 677–695. [CrossRef]
Lakehal, A. , Nait Bouda, N. , and Harmand, S. , 2013, “ Etude Numérique d'un Écoulement Turbulent Dans une Jonction en T Avec Transfert de Chaleur,” 21st French Congress of Mechanics (CFM'21), Bordeaux, France, Aug. 26–30.
Lakehal, A. , and Nait Bouda, N. , 2015, “ Influence du Rapport d'aspect sur le Comportement Dynamique d'un Écoulement Turbulent Dans une Bifurcation en T,” Revue Algérienne de Physique, 2(1), pp. 38–44.
Tikhonov, A. N. , 1943, “ Solution of Incorrectly Formulated Problems and the Regularization Method,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 151(3), pp. 501–504.
Tikhonov, N. A. , 1963, “ On the Stability of Inverse Problems,” Dokl. Akad. SSSR, 39(3), pp. 195–198.
Raffel, M. , Willert, C. , Wereley, S. , and Kompenhans, J. , 2007, Particle Image Velocimetry: Apractical Guide, Springer, Berlin.
Westerweel, 1994, “ Efficient Detection of Spurious Vectors in Particle Image Velocimetry Data,” Exp. Fluids, 16(3–4), pp. 236–247.
Coleman, H. , and Steele, W. , 1995, “ Engineering Application of Experimental Uncertainty Analysis,” AIAA J., 33(10), pp. 1888–1896. [CrossRef]
Gui, L. , Longo, J. , and Stern, F. , 2001, “ Towing Tank PIV Measurement System, Data and Uncertainty Assessment for DTMB Model 5512,” Exp. Fluids, 31(3), pp. 336–346. [CrossRef]
Murray, N. , and Ukeiley, L. , 2007, “ An Application of Gappy POD,” Exp. Fluids, 42(1), pp. 79–91. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T. , and Harmand, S. , 2013, “ Heat Transfer and Vertical Structures Around a Rotating Cylinder With a Spanwise Disk and Low-Velocity Crossflow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 64, pp.1014–1030. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T. , Pellé, J. , Harmand, S. , and Poncet, S. , 2012, “ PIV Measurements of an Air Jet Impinging on an Open Rotor-Stator System,” Exp. Fluids, 53(2), pp. 401–412. [CrossRef]
Launder, B. E. , Reece, G. J. , and Rodi, W. , 1975, “ Progress in the Development of a Reynolds Stress Turbulence Closure,” J. Fluid Mech., 68(3), pp. 537–566. [CrossRef]
Patankar, S. V. , 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow (Series in Computational Methods in Mechanics and Thermal Sciences), Hemisphere, New York.
Sabot, J. , and Comte-Bellot, G. , 1976, “ Intermittency of Coherent Structures in the Core Region of Fully Developed Turbulent Pipe Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 74(4), pp. 767–796. [CrossRef]
Spalart, P. , 1985, “ Numerical Simulations of Boundary Layers Part 1—Weak Formulation and Numerical Method,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, NASA Report No. NASA TM 88220-88222.
Hinze, J. O. , 1975, Turbulence, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 621.
Ohji, M. , 1967, “ Statistical Theory of Wall Turbulence,” Phys. Fluids, 10(9), pp. S153–S154. [CrossRef]
Nait Bouda, N. , Babbou, A. , and Harmand, S. , 2014, “ Reverse Flow Region Associated to a Heat Transfer in a Turbulent Wall Jet,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 85, pp. 151–158. [CrossRef]
Vogel, J. C. , and Eaton, J. K. , 1985, “ Combined Heat-Transfer and Fluid Dynamic Measurements Downstream of a Backward-Facing Step,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 107(4), pp. 922–929. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. T. , and Tsai, T. Y. , 1998, “ Numerical Calculation of Turbulent Flow in a Planar Bifurcation With a Protruding Branching Duct,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 34(1), pp. 61–74. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

View of the experimental setup (a) the general sketch and (b) measurement of the temperature on the right side of the third bifurcation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Mean x-velocity profiles u/U0 in the horizontal branch

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Mean x-velocity and the normal Reynolds stress profiles at the station, X = −1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Grid layout and coordinates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Distribution of the velocity magnitude and the streamlines pattern: (a) PIV measurements and (b) RSM-stress-ω calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Mean y-velocity profiles v/U0 in the bifurcation branch (left) right: evolution of the Reynolds stress (R12/U02) component profiles in the bifurcation channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Evolution of the Reynolds stress component (R12/U02) profiles in the horizontal channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Distribution of the z-vorticity; left, PIV measurement; right, RSM-stress-ω calculation and (b) distribution of the y-vorticity at the midplane X = 0.274

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Distribution of the y-velocity (m/s) and the streamlines pattern in the branch

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Nussel evolution on the centerline z = −2.91 Dh of the left- and right-heated walls of the bifurcation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Reynolds number influence on the Nussel evolution at Z = −2.91 of the left- and right-heated walls of the bifurcation (RSM-stress-ω)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature profiles obtained in the bifurcating branch, qwl = 2094 w/m2 and qwr = 2518 w/m2




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In