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Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Boiling in Microchannels With Nonuniform Heat Flux

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lorenzini

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: lorenzini@gatech.edu

Yogendra K. Joshi

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: yogendra.joshi@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Presented at the 5th ASME 2016 Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference. Paper No. MNHMT2016-6368. Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 3, 2016; final manuscript received May 15, 2017; published online August 23, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Chun Yang.

J. Heat Transfer 140(1), 011501 (Aug 23, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4037343 History: Received June 03, 2016; Revised May 15, 2017

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of boiling phenomena has remained a challenge due to numerical limitations for accurately simulating the two-phase flow and phase-change processes. In the present investigation, a CFD approach for such analysis is described using a three-dimensional (3D) volume of fluid (VOF) model coupled with a phase-change model accounting for the interfacial mass and energy transfer. This type of modeling allows the transient analysis of flow boiling mechanisms, while providing the ability to visualize in detail temperature, phase, and pressure distributions for microscale applications with affordable computational resources. Results for a plain microchannel are validated against benchmark correlations for heat transfer (HT) coefficients and pressure drop as a function of the heat flux and mass flux. Furthermore, the model is used for the assessment of two-phase cooling in microelectronics under a realistic scenario with nonuniform heat fluxes at localized regions of a silicon microchannel, relevant to the cooling layer of 3D integrated circuit (IC) architectures. Results indicate the strong effect of two-phase flow regime evolution and vapor accumulation on HT. The effects of reduced saturation pressure, subcooling, and flow arrangement are explored in order to provide insight about the underlying physics and cooling performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational domain used for comparison of model results with a flow boiling correlation and mesh independence analysis

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Fig. 2

Power map for a dual core architecture [21], and the selected cases for simulation with their corresponding heat flux per module

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Fig. 3

Computational domain used for the analysis of flow boiling in a silicon microchannel subjected to a nonuniform power distribution

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Fig. 4

Transient temperature field (°C) and two-phase flow regime computed at G = 500 kg/m2 s, and Tf,in = 60 °C for the heating conditions of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 5

Temperature variation in different modules of the silicon microchannel at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = 60 °C, and the nonuniform power map of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 6

Transient flow boiling behavior in the negative z-direction and temperature contours at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = Tsat = 60 °C, and power maps of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 7

Temperature variation in different modules of the silicon microchannel with flow in the negative z-direction at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = Tsat = 60 °C, and the nonuniform power map of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the quasi-steady-state solutions for the two-phase flow regime and temperature field for the analyzed cases with flow in the negative z-direction at G = = 500 kg/m2 s, Tsat = 60 °C, and the power maps of: (a) case 1—Tf,in = Tsat, (b) case 2—Tf,in = Tsat, (c) case 1—Tf,in = 50 °C, and (d) case 2—Tf,in = 50 °C

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Fig. 9

Variation of the HT coefficient along the microchannel for the analyzed cases with flow in the negative z-direction

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the two-phase pressure drop fluctuations for the different analyzed cases and flow arrangements

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