Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Flow Boiling in Microchannels With Nonuniform Heat Flux

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Lorenzini

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: lorenzini@gatech.edu

Yogendra K. Joshi

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: yogendra.joshi@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Presented at the 5th ASME 2016 Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference. Paper No. MNHMT2016-6368. Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 3, 2016; final manuscript received May 15, 2017; published online August 23, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Chun Yang.

J. Heat Transfer 140(1), 011501 (Aug 23, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1351; doi: 10.1115/1.4037343 History: Received June 03, 2016; Revised May 15, 2017

The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of boiling phenomena has remained a challenge due to numerical limitations for accurately simulating the two-phase flow and phase-change processes. In the present investigation, a CFD approach for such analysis is described using a three-dimensional (3D) volume of fluid (VOF) model coupled with a phase-change model accounting for the interfacial mass and energy transfer. This type of modeling allows the transient analysis of flow boiling mechanisms, while providing the ability to visualize in detail temperature, phase, and pressure distributions for microscale applications with affordable computational resources. Results for a plain microchannel are validated against benchmark correlations for heat transfer (HT) coefficients and pressure drop as a function of the heat flux and mass flux. Furthermore, the model is used for the assessment of two-phase cooling in microelectronics under a realistic scenario with nonuniform heat fluxes at localized regions of a silicon microchannel, relevant to the cooling layer of 3D integrated circuit (IC) architectures. Results indicate the strong effect of two-phase flow regime evolution and vapor accumulation on HT. The effects of reduced saturation pressure, subcooling, and flow arrangement are explored in order to provide insight about the underlying physics and cooling performance.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Xu, J. , Liu, G. , Zhang, W. , Li, Q. , and Wang, B. , 2009, “ Seed Bubbles Stabilize Flow and Heat Transfer in Parallel Microchannels,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(8), pp. 773–790. [CrossRef]
Garimella, S. V. , and Sobhan, C. B. , 2003, “ Transport in Microchannels—A Critical Review,” Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer, 13(13), pp. 1–50. [CrossRef]
Thome, J. R. , 2004, “ Boiling in Microchannels,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 25(2), pp. 128–139. [CrossRef]
Bertsch, S. S. , Groll, E. A. , and Garimella, S. V. , 2008, “ Review and Comparative Analysis of Studies on Saturated Flow Boiling in Small Channels,” Nanoscale Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 12(3), pp. 187–227. [CrossRef]
Ghiaasiaan, S. M. , 2008, Two-Phase Flow, Boiling and Condensation: In Conventional and Miniature Systems, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2010, “ Scale Effects on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannels: A Fundamental Perspective,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(7), pp. 1073–1085. [CrossRef]
Aniszewski, W. , Menard, T. , and Marek, M. , 2014, “ Volume of Fluid (VOF) Type Advection Methods in Two-Phase Flow: A Comparative Study,” Comput. Fluids, 97, pp. 52–73. [CrossRef]
Hua, H. , Shin, J. , and Kim, J. , 2014, “ Level Set, Phase-Field, and Immersed Boundary Methods for Two-Phase Fluid Flows,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 136(2), p. 021301. [CrossRef]
Sun, D. L. , and Tao, W. Q. , 2010, “ A Coupled Volume-of-Fluid and Level Set (VOSET) Method for Computing Incompressible Two Phase Flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(4), pp. 645–655. [CrossRef]
Wu, H. L. , Peng, X. F. , Ye, P. , and Gong, Y. E. , 2007, “ Simulation of Refrigerant Flow Boiling in Serpentine Tubes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(5–6), pp. 1186–1195. [CrossRef]
Yang, Z. , Peng, X. F. , and Ye, P. , 2008, “ Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Two-Phase Flow During Boiling in a Coiled Tube,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51(5–6), pp. 1003–1016. [CrossRef]
Lee, W. H. , 1980, “ A Pressure Iteration Scheme for Two-Phase Flow Modelling,” Multiphase Transport Fundamentals, Reactor Safety Applications, T. M. Verizoglu , ed., Hemisphere, Washington, DC.
De Schepper, S. C. K. , Heyderickx, G. J. , and Marin, G. B. , 2009, “ Modeling of the Evaporation of a Hydrocarbon Feedstock in the Convection Section of a Steam Cracker,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 33(1), pp. 122–132. [CrossRef]
Fang, C. , Milnes, D. , Rogacs, A. , and Goodson, K. , 2010, “ Volume of Fluid Simulation of Boiling Two-Phase Flow in a Vapor-Venting Microchannel,” Front. Heat Mass Transfer, 1(1), p. 013002. [CrossRef]
Zhuan, R. , and Wang, W. , 2011, “ Simulation of Subcooled Flow Boiling in a Micro-Channel,” Int. J. Refrig., 34(3), pp. 781–795. [CrossRef]
Plesset, M. S. , and Zwick, S. A. , 1954, “ The Growth of Vapour Bubble in Superheated Liquid,” J. Appl. Phys., 25(4), pp. 493–500. [CrossRef]
Zong, L. , Sun, D. G. , Xu, J. , and Wang, X. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of Seed Bubble-Triggered Evaporation Heat Transfer in a Single Microtube,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 16(1), pp. 347–360. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10404-013-1205-x
Sun, D. G. , Xu, J. , and Chen, Q. , 2014, “ Modeling of the Evaporation and Condensation Phase-Change Problems With FLUENT,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B, 66(4), pp. 326–342. [CrossRef]
Rahman, A. , and Reif, R. , 2000, “ System-Level Performance Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. Syst., 8(6), pp. 671–678. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2014, “ Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 136(2), p. 024001. [CrossRef]
Koo, J.-M. , Im, S. , Jiang, L. , and Goodson, K. E. , 2005, “ Integrated Microchannel Cooling for Three-Dimensional Electronic Circuit Architectures,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(1), pp. 49–58. [CrossRef]
Alfieri, F. , Tiwari, M. K. , Zinovik, I. , Poulikakos, D. , Brunschwiler, T. , and Michel, B. , 2010, “ 3D Integrated Water Cooling of a Composite Multilayer Stack of Chips,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(12), p. 121402. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Dembla, A. , Joshi, Y. , and Bakir, M. S. , 2012, “ 3D Stacked Microfluidic Cooling for High-Performance 3D ICs,” 62nd IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), San Diego, CA, May 29–June 1, pp. 1644–1650.
Kim, Y.-J. , Joshi, Y. K. , Fedorov, A. G. , Lee, Y.-J. , and Lim, S.-K. , 2010, “ Thermal Characterization of Interlayer Microfluidic Cooling of Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits With Non-Uniform Heat Flux,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(4), p. 041009. [CrossRef]
Wan, Z. , Xiao, H. , Joshi, Y. K. , and Yalamanchilli, S. , 2014, “ Co-Design of Multicore Architectures and Microfluidic Cooling for 3D Stacked ICs,” Microelectron. J., 45(12), pp. 1814–1821. [CrossRef]
Hirt, C. W. , and Nichols, B. D. , 1981, “ Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of Free Boundaries,” J. Comput. Phys., 39(1), pp. 201–225. [CrossRef]
Brackbill, J. U. , Kothe, D. B. , and Zemach, C. , 1992, “ A Continuum Method for Modeling Surface Tension,” J. Comput. Phys., 100(2), pp. 335–354. [CrossRef]
Youngs, D. L. , 1982, “ Time-Dependent Multi-Material Flow With Large Fluid Distortion,” Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics, K. W. Morton , and M. J. Baines , eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 273–285.
Ubbink, O. , 1997, “ Numerical Prediction of Two Fluid Systems With Sharp Interfaces,” Ph.D. thesis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London. http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.388372
Maa, J. R. , 1967, “ Evaporation Coefficient of Liquids,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 6(4), pp. 504–518. [CrossRef]
Cammenga, H. K. , Schulze, F. W. , and Theuerl, W. , 1977, “ Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Water,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 22(2), pp. 131–134. [CrossRef]
Lorenzini, D. , and Joshi, Y. , 2016, “ CFD Study of Flow Boling in Silicon Microgaps With Staggered Pin Fins for the 3D-stacking of ICs,” 15th IEEE Intersociety Conference on Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic Systems (ITherm), Las Vegas, NV, May 31–June 3, pp. 766–773.
Magnini, M. , and Thome, J. R. , 2016, “ Computational Study of Saturated Flow Boiling Within a Microchannel in the Slug Flow Regime,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 138(2), p. 021502. [CrossRef]
Gorle, C. , Lee, H. , Houshmand, F. , Asheghi, M. , Goodson, K. , and Parida, P. R. , 2015, “ Validation Study for VOF Simulations of Boiling in a Microchannel,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2015-48129.
IAPWS, 1997, “ IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam,” International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, Lucerne, Switzerland, pp. 33–35.
Glassbrenner, C. J. , and Slack, G. A. , 1964, “ Thermal Conductivity of Silicon and Germanium From 3 K to the Melting Point,” Phys. Rev., 134(4A), pp. A1058–A1059. [CrossRef]
Healy, M. B. , and Lim, S. K. , 2009, “ A Study of Stacking Limit and Scaling in 3D ICs: An Interconnect Perspective,” IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), San Diego, CA, May 26–29, pp. 1213–1220.
Lorenzini, D. , and Joshi, Y. K. , 2015, “ Effect of Surface Wettability on Flow Boiling in a Microchannel,” International Symposium on Advances in Computational Heat Transfer (CHT), Piscataway, NJ, May 25–29, pp. 176–193.
Choi, C. , Shin, J. S. , Yu, D. I. , and Kim, M. H. , 2011, “ Flow Boiling Behaviors in Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Microchannels,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 35(5), pp. 816–824. [CrossRef]
Bertsch, S. S. , Groll, E. A. , and Garimella, S. V. , 2009, “ A Composite Heat Transfer Correlation for Saturated Flow Boling in Small Channels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(7–8), pp. 2110–2118. [CrossRef]
Chen, J. C. , 1966, “ Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Convective Flow,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 5(3), pp. 322–329.
Muller-Steinhagen, H. , and Heck, K. , 1986, “ A Simple Friction Pressure Drop Correlation for Two-Phase Flow in Pipes,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 20(6), pp. 297–308. [CrossRef]
Harirchian, T. , and Garimella, S. V. , 2010, “ A Comprehensive Flow Regime Map for Microchannel Flow Boiling With Quantitative Transition Criteria,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(13–14), pp. 2694–2702. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computational domain used for comparison of model results with a flow boiling correlation and mesh independence analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Power map for a dual core architecture [21], and the selected cases for simulation with their corresponding heat flux per module

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Computational domain used for the analysis of flow boiling in a silicon microchannel subjected to a nonuniform power distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Transient temperature field (°C) and two-phase flow regime computed at G = 500 kg/m2 s, and Tf,in = 60 °C for the heating conditions of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of the HT coefficient along the microchannel for the analyzed cases with flow in the negative z-direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature variation in different modules of the silicon microchannel at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = 60 °C, and the nonuniform power map of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Transient flow boiling behavior in the negative z-direction and temperature contours at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = Tsat = 60 °C, and power maps of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature variation in different modules of the silicon microchannel with flow in the negative z-direction at G = 500 kg/m2 s, Tf,in = Tsat = 60 °C, and the nonuniform power map of: (a) case 1 and (b) case 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Comparison of the two-phase pressure drop fluctuations for the different analyzed cases and flow arrangements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of the quasi-steady-state solutions for the two-phase flow regime and temperature field for the analyzed cases with flow in the negative z-direction at G = = 500 kg/m2 s, Tsat = 60 °C, and the power maps of: (a) case 1—Tf,in = Tsat, (b) case 2—Tf,in = Tsat, (c) case 1—Tf,in = 50 °C, and (d) case 2—Tf,in = 50 °C



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In