Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Hydrodynamic Effects on Particle Deposition in Microchannel Flows at Elevated Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhibin Yan

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore
e-mail: zyan3@e.ntu.edu.sg

Xiaoyang Huang

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore
e-mail: mxhuang@ntu.edu.sg

Chun Yang

School of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Nanyang Technological University,
50 Nanyang Avenue,
Singapore 639798, Singapore
e-mail: mcyang@ntu.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Presented at the 5th ASME 2016 Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference. Paper No. MNHMT2016-6628.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 23, 2016; final manuscript received June 11, 2017; published online August 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert D. Tzou.

J. Heat Transfer 140(1), 012402 (Aug 16, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1414; doi: 10.1115/1.4037397 History: Received June 23, 2016; Revised June 11, 2017

Particulate fouling and particle deposition at elevated temperature are crucial issues in microchannel heat exchangers. In this work, a microfluidic system was designed to examine the hydrodynamic effects on the deposition of microparticles in a microchannel flow, which simulate particle deposits in microscale heat exchangers. The deposition rates of microparticles were measured in two typical types of flow, a steady flow and a pulsatile flow. Under a given elevated solution temperature and electrolyte concentration of the particle dispersion in the tested flow rate range, the dimensionless particle deposition rate (Sherwood number) was found to decrease with the Reynolds number of the steady flow and reach a plateau for the Reynolds number beyond 0.091. Based on the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory, a mass transport model was developed with considering temperature dependence of the particle deposition at elevated temperatures. The modeling results can reasonably capture our experimental observations. Moreover, the experimental results of the pulsatile flow revealed that the particle deposition rate in the microchannel can be mitigated by increasing the frequency of pulsation within a low-frequency region. Our findings are expected to provide a better understanding of thermally driven particulate fouling as well as to provide useful information for design and operation of microchannel heat exchangers.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhu, Y. , Antao, D. S. , Chu, K.-H. , Chen, S. , Hendricks, T. J. , Zhang, T. , and Wang, E. N. , 2016, “ Surface Structure Enhanced Microchannel Flow Boiling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 138(9), p. 091501. [CrossRef]
Kalani, A. , and Kandlikar, S. G. , 2013, “ Enhanced Pool Boiling With Ethanol at Subatmospheric Pressures for Electronics Cooling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(11), p. 111002. [CrossRef]
Singh, P. K. , Harikrishna, P. V. , Sundararajan, T. , and Das, S. K. , 2011, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into the Heat Transfer Study of Nanofluids in Microchannel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133(12), p. 121701. [CrossRef]
Colgan, E. G. , Furman, B. , Gaynes, M. , LaBianca, N. , Magerlein, J. H. , Polastre, R. , Bezama, R. , Marston, K. , and Schmidt, R. , 2006, “ High Performance and Subambient Silicon Microchannel Cooling,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(8), pp. 1046–1051. [CrossRef]
Yan, Z. B. , Duan, F. , Wong, T. N. , Toh, K. C. , Choo, K. F. , Chan, P. K. , Chua, Y. S. , and Lee, L. W. , 2013, “ Large Area Impingement Spray Cooling From Multiple Normal and Inclined Spray Nozzles,” Heat Mass Transfer, 49(7), pp. 985–990. [CrossRef]
Yan, Z. B. , Toh, K. C. , Duan, F. , Wong, T. N. , Choo, K. F. , Chan, P. K. , and Chua, Y. S. , 2010, “ Experimental Study of Impingement Spray Cooling for High Power Devices,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(10), pp. 1225–1230. [CrossRef]
Yan, Z. B. , Duan, F. , Wong, T. N. , Toh, K. C. , Choo, K. F. , Chan, P. K. , Chua, Y. S. , and Lee, L. W. , 2010, “ Large Area Spray Cooling by Inclined Nozzles for Electronic Board,” 12th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC), Singapore, Dec. 8–10, pp. 76–78.
Marcinichen, J. B. , Olivier, J. A. , Lamaison, N. , and Thome, J. R. , 2013, “ Advances in Electronics Cooling,” Heat Transfer Eng., 34(5–6), pp. 434–446. [CrossRef]
Madhour, Y. , Olivier, J. , Costa-Patry, E. , Paredes, S. , Michel, B. , and Thome, J. R. , 2011, “ Flow Boiling of R134a in a Multi-Microchannel Heat Sink With Hotspot Heaters for Energy-Efficient Microelectronic CPU Cooling Applications,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., 1(6), pp. 873–883. [CrossRef]
Tuckerman, D. B. , and Pease, R. F. W. , 1981, “ High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., 2(5), pp. 126–129. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , Choi, S. U. S. , Li, S. , and Eastman, J. A. , 1999, “ Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fluids Containing Oxide Nanoparticles,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121(2), pp. 280–288. [CrossRef]
Tuckerman, D. B. , Pease, R. F. W. , Guo, Z. , Hu, J. E. , Yildirim, O. , Deane, G. , and Wood, L. , 2011, “ Microchannel Heat Transfer: Early History, Commercial Applications, and Emerging Opportunities,” ASME Paper No. ICNMM2011-58308.
Unni, H. N. , and Yang, C. , 2009, “ Colloidal Particle Deposition From Electrokinetic Flow in a Microfluidic Channel,” Electrophoresis, 30(5), pp. 732–741. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gu, Y. , and Li, D. , 2002, “ Deposition of Spherical Particles Onto Cylindrical Solid Surfaces—II: Experimental Studies,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 248(2), pp. 329–339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yang, C. , Dabros, T. , Li, D. , Czarnecki, J. , and Masliyah, J. H. , 1998, “ Kinetics of Particle Transport to a Solid Surface From an Impinging Jet Under Surface and External Force Fields,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 208(1), pp. 226–240. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Song, L. , and Elimelech, M. , 1995, “ Particle Deposition Onto a Permeable Surface in Laminar Flow,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 173(1), pp. 165–180. [CrossRef]
Elimelech, M. , Gregory, J. , Jia, X. , and Williams, R. A. , 1995, Particle Deposition & Aggregation: Measurement, Modelling and Simulation, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M. , Vatani, A. , and Jamialahmadi, M. , 2012, “ Experimental Study of Micro-Particle Fouling Under Forced Convective Heat Transfer,” Braz. J. Chem. Eng., 29(4), pp. 713–724. [CrossRef]
Hwang, G. , Ahn, I. S. , Mhin, B. J. , and Kim, J. Y. , 2012, “ Adhesion of Nano-Sized Particles to the Surface of Bacteria: Mechanistic Study With the Extended DLVO Theory,” Colloids Surf., B, 97, pp. 138–144. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, I. , and Walker, S. L. , 2012, “ Deposition Mechanisms of TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Parallel Plate System,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 369(1), pp. 16–22. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chen, G. , Hong, Y. , and Walker, S. L. , 2010, “ Colloidal and Bacterial Deposition: Role of Gravity,” Langmuir, 26(1), pp. 314–319. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Perry, J. , and Kandlikar, S. , 2008, “ Fouling and Its Mitigation in Silicon Microchannels Used for IC Chip Cooling,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 5(3), pp. 357–371. [CrossRef]
Nazemifard, N. , Masliyah, J. H. , and Bhattacharjee, S. , 2006, “ Particle Deposition Onto Micropatterned Charge Heterogeneous Substrates: Trajectory Analysis,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 293(1), pp. 1–15. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yiantsios, S. G. , and Karabelas, A. J. , 2003, “ Deposition of Micron-Sized Particles on Flat Surfaces: Effects of Hydrodynamic and Physicochemical Conditions on Particle Attachment Efficiency,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 58(14), pp. 3105–3113. [CrossRef]
Yiantsios, S. G. , and Karabelas, A. J. , 1998, “ The Effect of Gravity on the Deposition of Micron-Sized Particles on Smooth Surfaces,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 24(2), pp. 283–293. [CrossRef]
Yiantsios, S. G. , and Karabelas, A. J. , 1995, “ Detachment of Spherical Microparticles Adhering on Flat Surfaces by Hydrodynamic Forces,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 176(1), pp. 74–85. [CrossRef]
Yan, Z. , Huang, X. , and Yang, C. , 2016, “ Particulate Fouling and Mitigation Approach in Microchannel Heat Exchanger,” ASME Paper No. MNHMT2016-6628.
Yan, Z. , Huang, X. , and Yang, C. , 2015, “ Deposition of Colloidal Particles in a Microchannel at Elevated Temperatures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid., 18(3), pp. 403–414. [CrossRef]
Adamczyk, Z. , Dabros', T. , Czarnecki, J. , and Van De Ven, T. G. M. , 1983, “ Particle Transfer to Solid Surfaces,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 19(3), pp. 183–252. [CrossRef]
Unni, H. N. , 2007, “ Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Particles in MicroChannel Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. https://repository.ntu.edu.sg/handle/10356/36143
Hogg, R. , Healy, T. W. , and Fuerstenau, D. W. , 1966, “ Mutual Coagulation of Colloidal Dispersions,” Trans. Faraday Soc., 62(615), pp. 1638–1651. [CrossRef]
Bendersky, M. , and Davis, J. M. , 2011, “ DLVO Interaction of Colloidal Particles With Topographically and Chemically Heterogeneous Surfaces,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 353(1), pp. 87–97. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bhattacharjee, S. , Chen, J. Y. , and Elimelech, M. , 2000, “ DLVO Interaction Energy Between Spheroidal Particles and a Flat Surface,” Colloids Surf., A, 165(1–3), pp. 143–156. [CrossRef]
Martines, E. , Csaderova, L. , Morgan, H. , Curtis, A. S. G. , and Riehle, M. O. , 2008, “ DLVO Interaction Energy Between a Sphere and a Nano-Patterned Plate,” Colloids Surf., A, 318(1–3), pp. 45–52. [CrossRef]
Gu, Y. , and Li, D. , 2002, “ Deposition of Spherical Particles Onto Cylindrical Solid Surfaces—I: Numerical Simulations,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 248(2), pp. 315–328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Suzuki, A. , Ho, N. F. H. , and Higuchi, W. I. , 1969, “ Predictions of the Particle Size Distribution Changes in Emulsions and Suspensions by Digital Computation,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 29(3), pp. 552–564. [CrossRef]
Wagner, W. , and Pruß, A. , 2002, “ The IAPWS Formulation 1995 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance for General and Scientific Use,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 31(2), pp. 387–535. [CrossRef]
Maidment, D. R. , 1993, Handbook of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Saffman, P. G. , 1965, “ The Lift on a Small Sphere in a Slow Shear Flow,” J. Fluid. Mech., 22(2), pp. 385–400. [CrossRef]
Hall, D. , 1988, “ Measurements of the Mean Force on a Particle Near a Boundary in Turbulent Flow,” J. Fluid. Mech., 187, pp. 451–466. [CrossRef]
Mollinger, A. M. , and Nieuwstadt, F. T. M. , 1996, “ Measurement of the Lift Force on a Particle Fixed to the Wall in the Viscous Sublayer of a Fully Developed Turbulent Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid. Mech., 316, pp. 285–306. [CrossRef]
Leighton, D. , and Acrivos, A. , 1985, “ The Lift on a Small Sphere Touching a Plane in the Presence of a Simple Shear Flow,” ZAMP, 36(1), pp. 174–178. [CrossRef]
Yang, J. , Bos, R. , Poortinga, A. , Wit, P. J. , Belder, G. F. , and Busscher, H. J. , 1999, “ Comparison of Particle Deposition in a Parallel Plate and a Stagnation Point Flow Chamber,” Langmuir, 15(13), pp. 4671–4677. [CrossRef]
Jin, C. , Glawdel, T. , Ren, C. L. , and Emelko, M. B. , 2015, “ Non-Linear, Non-Monotonic Effect of Nano-Scale Roughness on Particle Deposition in Absence of an Energy Barrier: Experiments and Modeling,” Sci. Rep., 5(1), p. 17747. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jin, C. , Ren, C. L. , and Emelko, M. B. , 2016, “ Concurrent Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Interaction Forces Improves Particle Deposition Predictions,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(8), pp. 4401–4412. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wit, P. J. , Poortinga, A. , Noordmans, J. , van der Mei, H. C. , and Busscher, H. J. , 1999, “ Deposition of Polystyrene Particles in a Parallel Plate Flow Chamber Under Attractive and Repulsive Electrostatic Conditions,” Langmuir, 15(8), pp. 2620–2626. [CrossRef]
Moschandreou, T. E. , Ellis, C. G. , and Goldman, D. , 2010, “ Mass Transfer in a Rigid Tube With Pulsatile Flow and Constant Wall Concentration,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 132(8), p. 081202. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the microfluidic system for the direct observation of the particle deposition kinetics in microchannels at elevated temperatures, inset: cross section view of the pulsation generation unit (PGU); (b) and (c) Images of the microchip and PGU fabricated in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of microparticle transport in a microchannel. The forces on the particle are the van der Waals force (Fvdw), gravity force (FG), electric double layer (EDL) force (Fedl), thermophoretic force (FT), and hydrodynamic lift force (FL). The particle radius is ap, the minimum separation distance between the particle surface and the bottom surface of the microchannel is h, the flow velocity distribution is U(y), and heat is conducted from the neighboring heating channels to the deposition microchannel (the figure is not drawn to scale).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Number of deposited particles per unit area versus time for different sample flow rates in the microchannel (0.01 mL/h, 0.025 mL/h, 0.1 mL/h, 0.5 mL/h, 2 mL/h); (b) Dimensionless deposition rate (Sherwood number) versus the Reynolds number of the sample flow. Solid square (▪) indicates the measured Sherwood number Shexp determined by Eq. (2), and open square (◻) shows the predicted Sherwood number Shnum by Eq. (10) from numerical modeling. The dotted line shows the least-square fitting curve. Inset shows the Reynolds numbers of the sample fluid as a function of sample flow rate. Data are for the fluorescent polystyrene particles dispersed in a NaCl solution (5 × 10−4 M). The solution temperature is kept at 324.85 K.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Dimensionless particle–microchannel interaction potential V¯ versus the dimensionless separation distance H for different Reynolds numbers of the sample flow; (b) The energy barrier (shown by -◻-) and the interaction potential at H = 10 (shown by -▪-) as a function of the Reynolds number; data are calculated by using Eq. (12) for the fluorescent polystyrene particles dispersed in a NaCl solution (5 × 10−4 M). The solution temperature is kept at 324.85 K. The right dotted square indicates the secondary energy minimum region, and the left dotted square indicates the PEM region.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) The amplitude of the volume flow rate of oscillatory flow (Qamp) versus oscillation frequency (f). The dotted line represents the average value for the amplitude of oscillatory flow rate (Qamp). Inset shows that the flow rate of pulsatile flow (Qpul) is equal to the superposition of a steady flow component (Qs) and an oscillatory flow component (Qos). (b) The normalized particle deposition rate Sh/Sh0 versus the flow oscillation frequency of the microchannel flow in a PMMA microchannel. Polystyrene microparticles (diameter: 930 nm) are dispersed in a NaCl solution (5 × 10−4 M). The flow rate of the steady flow is maintained at 1 mL/h, and the solution temperature is kept at 324.85 K. The amplitude of the flow oscillation (Qamp) is 0.09 mL/h. The dotted line represents the least-squares fitting curve.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In