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Research Papers: Thermal Systems

Heat Transfer and Thermodynamic Analyses of a Novel Solid–Gas Thermochemical Strontium Chloride–Ammonia Thermal Energy Storage System

[+] Author and Article Information
Maan Al-Zareer

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: maan.al-zareer@uoit.ca

Ibrahim Dincer

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: ibrahim.dincer@uoit.ca

Marc A. Rosen

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: marc.rosen@uoit.ca

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received July 26, 2016; final manuscript received June 15, 2017; published online September 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 140(2), 022802 (Sep 06, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1475; doi: 10.1115/1.4037534 History: Received July 26, 2016; Revised June 15, 2017

A novel solid–gas thermochemical sorption thermal energy storage (TES) system for solar heating and cooling applications operating on four steady-state flow devices and with two transient storage tanks is proposed. The TES system stores solar or waste thermal energy in the form of chemical bonds as the working gas is desorbed from the solid. Strontium chloride–ammonia is the working solid–gas couple in the thermochemical sorption TES system. Strontium chloride–ammonia has a moderate working temperature range that is appropriate for building heating and cooling applications. The steady-state devices in the system are simulated using Aspen Plus, and the two transient components are simulated using the ENGINEERING EQUATION SOLVER (EES) package. Multiple cases are examined of different heat and cold production temperatures for both heating and cooling applications for a constant thermal energy input temperature. Energy and exergy analyses are performed on the system for all simulated cases. The maximum energy and exergy efficiencies for heating applications are 65.4% and 50.8%, respectively, when the heat is generated at a temperature of 87 °C. The maximum energy and exergy efficiencies for cooling applications are 29.3% when the cold production temperature is 0 °C and 22.9% when it is −35 °C, respectively. The maximum heat produced per mass of the ammonia produced, for 100% conversion of the reactants in the chemical reaction, is 2010 kJ/kg at a heat production temperature of 87 °C, and the maximum cold energy generated is 902 kJ/kg at a temperature of 0 °C. Finally, the system is modified to operate as a heat pump, and energy and exergy analyses are performed on the thermochemical heat pump. It is found that the maximum energy and exergy coefficients of performance (COP) achieved by upgrading heat from 87 °C to 96 °C are 1.4 and 3.6, respectively, and the maximum energy and exergy efficiencies are 56.4% and 79.0%, respectively.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Diagram of the proposed novel solid–gas thermochemical TES system

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Fig. 2

Process flow sheet from Aspen Plus for the steady-state processes in the proposed thermochemical cycle

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Fig. 3

The Clapeyron diagram for the sorption pair of SrCl2*8NH3 showing the liquid–vapor and solid–gas equilibrium lines

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Fig. 4

The modification of the proposed thermal energy storage system to operate as a heat pump with steady-state conditions

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Fig. 5

Aspen Plus flow sheet of the simulated heat pump

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Fig. 6

(a) Overall simplified presentation of the proposed heat pump and (b) block diagram of the proposed heat pump with all inputs and outputs

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Fig. 7

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 52 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C, (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 8

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 70 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C and (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 9

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 87 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C and (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 10

Charging, discharging, and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a 0 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 11

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a −20 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 12

Charging, discharging, and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a −35 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 13

Energy and exergy efficiencies of all cases of heat and cold production for which the proposed system was simulated

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Fig. 14

Maximum heat or cold production unit values achieved by the proposed thermochemical thermal energy storage system. *Heat or cold production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

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Fig. 15

Overall performance assessment of the proposed thermochemical heat pump based on the proposed thermochemical thermal energy storage system

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Fig. 16

Overall energy efficiency variation with the masses of the reactor and the condenser of the proposed system for heat production for the case of heat production at a temperature of 87 °C and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, for an environment temperature of 25 °C

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Fig. 17

Overall exergy efficiency variation with the masses of the reactor and the condenser of the proposed system for heat production for the case of heat production at a temperature of 87 °C and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C for an environment temperature of 25 °C

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