0
Research Papers: Thermal Systems

Heat Transfer and Thermodynamic Analyses of a Novel Solid–Gas Thermochemical Strontium Chloride–Ammonia Thermal Energy Storage System

[+] Author and Article Information
Maan Al-Zareer

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: maan.al-zareer@uoit.ca

Ibrahim Dincer

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: ibrahim.dincer@uoit.ca

Marc A. Rosen

Clean Energy Research Laboratory,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Ontario Institute of Technology,
2000 Simcoe Street North,
Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4, Canada
e-mail: marc.rosen@uoit.ca

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received July 26, 2016; final manuscript received June 15, 2017; published online September 6, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 140(2), 022802 (Sep 06, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1475; doi: 10.1115/1.4037534 History: Received July 26, 2016; Revised June 15, 2017

A novel solid–gas thermochemical sorption thermal energy storage (TES) system for solar heating and cooling applications operating on four steady-state flow devices and with two transient storage tanks is proposed. The TES system stores solar or waste thermal energy in the form of chemical bonds as the working gas is desorbed from the solid. Strontium chloride–ammonia is the working solid–gas couple in the thermochemical sorption TES system. Strontium chloride–ammonia has a moderate working temperature range that is appropriate for building heating and cooling applications. The steady-state devices in the system are simulated using Aspen Plus, and the two transient components are simulated using the ENGINEERING EQUATION SOLVER (EES) package. Multiple cases are examined of different heat and cold production temperatures for both heating and cooling applications for a constant thermal energy input temperature. Energy and exergy analyses are performed on the system for all simulated cases. The maximum energy and exergy efficiencies for heating applications are 65.4% and 50.8%, respectively, when the heat is generated at a temperature of 87 °C. The maximum energy and exergy efficiencies for cooling applications are 29.3% when the cold production temperature is 0 °C and 22.9% when it is −35 °C, respectively. The maximum heat produced per mass of the ammonia produced, for 100% conversion of the reactants in the chemical reaction, is 2010 kJ/kg at a heat production temperature of 87 °C, and the maximum cold energy generated is 902 kJ/kg at a temperature of 0 °C. Finally, the system is modified to operate as a heat pump, and energy and exergy analyses are performed on the thermochemical heat pump. It is found that the maximum energy and exergy coefficients of performance (COP) achieved by upgrading heat from 87 °C to 96 °C are 1.4 and 3.6, respectively, and the maximum energy and exergy efficiencies are 56.4% and 79.0%, respectively.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wang, R. Z. , Ge, T. S. , Chen, C. J. , Ma, Q. , and Xiong, Z. Q. , 2009, “ Solar Sorption Cooling Systems for Residential Applications: Options and Guidelines,” Int. J. Refrig., 32(4), pp. 638–660. [CrossRef]
Balaras, C. A. , Grossman, G. , Henning, H. M. , Infante Ferreira, C. A. , Podesser, E. , Wang, L. , and Wiemken, E. , 2007, “ Solar Air Conditioning in Europe—An Overview,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 11(2), pp. 299–314. [CrossRef]
IEA, 2015, “ IEA SHC Solar Heating & Cooling,” IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, International Energy Agency, Paris, France, pp. 127–32.
Dincer, I. , and Rosen, M. A. , 2010, Thermal Energy Storage: Systems and Applications, 2nd ed., Wiley, Chichester, UK. [CrossRef]
Li, T. X. , Wang, R. Z. , and Yan, T. , 2015, “ Solid-Gas Thermochemical Sorption Thermal Battery for Solar Cooling and Heating Energy Storage and Heat Transformer,” Energy, 84, pp. 745–758. [CrossRef]
Pielichowska, K. , and Pielichowski, K. , 2014, “ Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage,” Prog. Mater. Sci., 65, pp. 67–123. [CrossRef]
N'Tsoukpoe, K. E. , Liu, H. , Le Pierres, N. , and Luo, L. , 2009, “ A Review on Long-Term Sorption Solar Energy Storage,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 13(9), pp. 2385–2396. [CrossRef]
Pinel, P. , Cruickshank, C. A. , Beausoleil-Morrison, I. , and Wills, A. , 2011, “ A Review of Available Methods for Seasonal Storage of Solar Thermal Energy in Residential Applications,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(7), pp. 3341–3359. [CrossRef]
Li, T. X. , Wang, R. Z. , and Li, H. , 2014, “ Progress in the Development of Solid-Gas Sorption Refrigeration Thermodynamic Cycle Driven by Low-Grade Thermal Energy,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 40, pp. 1–58. [CrossRef]
Yu, N. , Wang, R. Z. , and Wang, L. W. , 2013, “ Sorption Thermal Storage for Solar Energy,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 39(5), pp. 489–514. [CrossRef]
Narayanan, S. , Li, X. , Yang, S. , McKay, I. , Kim, H. , and Wang, E. N. , 2013, “ Design and Optimization of High Performance Adsorption-Based Thermal Battery,” ASME Paper No. HT2013-17472.
Hauer, A. , 2007, Sorption Theory for Thermal Energy Storage, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [CrossRef]
Janchen, J. , Ackermann, D. , Stach, H. , and Brosicke, W. , 2004, “ Studies of the Water Adsorption on Zeolites and Modified Mesoporous Materials for Seasonal Storage of Solar Heat,” Sol. Energy, 76(1–3), pp. 339–344. [CrossRef]
Aristov, Y. I. , 2013, “ Challenging Offers of Material Science for Adsorption Heat Transformation: A Review,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 50(2), pp. 1610–1618. [CrossRef]
Wang, R. Z. , Xia, Z. Z. , Wang, L. W. , Lu, Z. S. , Li, S. L. , Li, T. X. , Wu, J. Y. , and He, S. , 2011, “ Heat Transfer Design in Adsorption Refrigeration Systems for Efficient Use of Low-Grade Thermal Energy,” Energy, 36(9), pp. 5425–5439. [CrossRef]
Chan, C. W. , Ling-Chin, J. , and Roskilly, A. P. , 2013, “ A Review of Chemical Heat Pumps, Thermodynamic Cycles and Thermal Energy Storage Technologies for Low Grade Heat Utilisation,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 50(1), pp. 1257–1273. [CrossRef]
Cot-Gores, J. , Castell, A. , and Cabeza, L. F. , 2012, “ Thermochemical Energy Storage and Conversion: A-State-of-the-Art Review of the Experimental Research Under Practical Conditions,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16(7), pp. 5207–5224. [CrossRef]
Li, T. X. , Wang, R. Z. , Kiplagat, J. K. , Chen, H. , and Wang, L. W. , 2011, “ A New Target-Oriented Methodology of Decreasing the Regeneration Temperature of Solid-Gas Thermochemical Sorption Refrigeration System Driven by Low-Grade Thermal Energy,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(21–22), pp. 4719–4729. [CrossRef]
Whiting, G. T. , Grondin, D. , Stosic, D. , Bennici, S. , and Auroux, A. , 2014, “ Zeolite-MgCl2 Composites as Potential Long-Term Heat Storage Materials: Influence of Zeolite Properties on Heats of Water Sorption,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 128, pp. 289–295. [CrossRef]
Hongois, S. , Kuznik, F. , Stevens, P. , and Roux, J. J. , 2011, “ Development and Characterisation of a New MgSO4-Zeolite Composite for Long-Term Thermal Energy Storage,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 95(7), pp. 1831–1837. [CrossRef]
Mauran, S. , Lahmidi, H. , and Goetz, V. , 2008, “ Solar Heating and Cooling by a Thermochemical Process. First Experiments of a Prototype Storing 60kWh by a Solid/Gas Reaction,” Sol. Energy, 82(7), pp. 623–636. [CrossRef]
Zhu, D. , Wu, H. , and Wang, S. , 2006, “ Experimental Study on Composite Silica Gel Supported CaCl2 Sorbent for Low Grade Heat Storage,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 45(8), pp. 804–813. [CrossRef]
Balasubramanian, G. , Ghommem, M. , Hajj, M. R. , Wong, W. P. , Tomlin, J. A. , and Puri, I. K. , 2010, “ Modeling of Thermochemical Energy Storage by Salt Hydrates,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(25–26), pp. 5700–5706. [CrossRef]
Obermeier, J. , Müller, K. , and Arlt, W. , 2015, “ Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemical Heat Pumps,” Energy, 88, pp. 489–496. [CrossRef]
Ferreira, L. S. , and Trierweiler, J. O. , 2009, “ Modeling and Simulation of the Polymeric Nanocapsule Formation Process,” IFAC Proc. Vol. (IFAC-PapersOnline), 42(11), pp. 405–410. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Diagram of the proposed novel solid–gas thermochemical TES system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Process flow sheet from Aspen Plus for the steady-state processes in the proposed thermochemical cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The Clapeyron diagram for the sorption pair of SrCl2*8NH3 showing the liquid–vapor and solid–gas equilibrium lines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The modification of the proposed thermal energy storage system to operate as a heat pump with steady-state conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Aspen Plus flow sheet of the simulated heat pump

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Overall simplified presentation of the proposed heat pump and (b) block diagram of the proposed heat pump with all inputs and outputs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 52 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C, (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 70 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C and (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and heat production for the case of a 87 °C temperature at which heat is produced and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C: (a) at an environment temperature of 25 °C and (b) at an environment temperature of 0 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Charging, discharging, and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a 0 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Charging, discharging and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a −20 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Charging, discharging, and overall efficiencies and cold production for the case of a −35 °C temperature at which cold is produced (heat is absorbed) and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, at an environment temperature of 25 °C. *Heat production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Energy and exergy efficiencies of all cases of heat and cold production for which the proposed system was simulated

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Maximum heat or cold production unit values achieved by the proposed thermochemical thermal energy storage system. *Heat or cold production per mass of NH3 produced at 100% conversion percentage of the reactants.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Overall performance assessment of the proposed thermochemical heat pump based on the proposed thermochemical thermal energy storage system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Overall energy efficiency variation with the masses of the reactor and the condenser of the proposed system for heat production for the case of heat production at a temperature of 87 °C and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C, for an environment temperature of 25 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Overall exergy efficiency variation with the masses of the reactor and the condenser of the proposed system for heat production for the case of heat production at a temperature of 87 °C and a heat supply temperature of 110 °C for an environment temperature of 25 °C

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In