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Research Papers: Jets, Wakes, and Impingment Cooling

Passive Control and Enhancement of Low Reynolds Number Slot Jets Through the Use of Tabs and Chevrons

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Sexton

CONNECT,
Stokes Laboratories,
Bernal Institute,
University of Limerick,
Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland
e-mail: andrew.sexton@ul.ie

Jeff Punch

CONNECT,
Stokes Laboratories,
Bernal Institute,
University of Limerick,
Limerick V94 T9PX, Ireland

Jason Stafford, Nicholas Jeffers

Thermal Management Research Group,
Nokia Bell Labs,
Dublin D15 Y6NT, Ireland

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received February 22, 2017; final manuscript received July 10, 2017; published online October 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Danesh K. Tafti.

J. Heat Transfer 140(3), 032201 (Oct 10, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4037786 History: Received February 22, 2017; Revised July 10, 2017

Liquid microjets are emerging as candidate primary or secondary heat exchangers for the thermal management of next generation photonic integrated circuits (PICs). However, the thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of confined, low Reynolds number liquid slot jets is not yet comprehensively understood. This investigation experimentally examined jet outlet modifications—in the form of tabs and chevrons—as techniques for passive control and enhancement of single-phase convective heat transfer. The investigation was carried out for slot jets in the laminar flow regime, with a Reynolds number range, based on the slot jet hydraulic diameter, of 100–500. A slot jet with an aspect ratio of 4 and a fixed confinement height to hydraulic diameter ratio (H/Dh) of 1 was considered. The local surface heat transfer and velocity field characteristics were measured using infrared (IR) thermography and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. It was found that increases in area-averaged Nusselt number of up to 29% compared to the baseline case could be achieved without incurring additional hydrodynamic losses. It was also determined that the location and magnitude of Nusselt number and velocity peaks within the slot jet stagnation region could be passively controlled and enhanced through the application of outlet tabs of varying geometries and locations.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of tab geometries and locations for (a) baseline case, (b) minor double tabs, (c) minor triangle, (d) major triangle, (e) major chevron, and (f) major contour

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Illustration of the characteristic regions in confined slot jet dynamics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the PIV measurement facility. (1) Water reservoir, (2) Totton DC40/10 centrifugal pump, (3) bypass valve, (4) Cole-Parmer direct-reading flow tube, (5) flow conditioning plenum and (b) detailed view of the test section (6) Litron Nano PIV Nd:YAG laser, (7) 2 MP camera, and (8) PIV test specimen.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the local heat transfer test facility. (1) Lauda water bath, (2) Cole-Parmer digital gear pump, (3) Bronkhurst mass-flow meter, (4) flow conditioning plenum, and (5) flir IR camera. (b) Detailed view of the heated thin-foil test section (6) nozzle orifice plate, (7) three-dimensional printed tab, (8) stainless steel foil, (9) IR transparent glass, (10) copper bus bars, and (11) electrical input and tightening screw.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Validation of the heat transfer measurement facility against established correlations from literature

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Fig. 6

(a) Schematic of the pressure drop measurement facility. (1) Lauda water bath, (2) Cole-Parmer digital gear pump, (3) Bronkhurst mass-flow meter, (4) flow conditioning plenum, and (b) detailed view of the test section (5) flow outlet to reservoir, (6) tightening screws, (7) test specimen holder, and (8) stainless steel test specimen.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Exit velocity profiles of the impinging jets along the major axis, normalized against the mean jet exit velocity (UMean) at ReDh = 500, for the (a) baseline, (b) minor double tab, (c) minor triangle, (d) major triangle, (e) major chevron, and (f) major contour outlet modifications

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Plots of wall jet velocity profiles along the major axis for ReDh = 500, normalized against Uy,Max for each geometry, for the (a) baseline, (b) minor double tab, (c) minor triangle, (d) major triangle, (e) major chevron, and (f) major contour outlet modifications

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Local NuDh distributions for all geometries (a)–(f) as a function of ReDh. NuDh and ReDh length scales are based on the hydraulic diameter of the baseline case: (a) β = 0, (b) β = 0.1, (c) β = 0.125, (d) β = 0.15, (e) β = 0.2, and (f) β = 0.295.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) NuAvg as a function of the investigated surface area for ReDh = 500 and (b) hAvg as a function of V˙ for all geometries tested over a surface area of 36Dh2 along the major and minor axes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Pressure drop (ΔP) as a function of volumetric flow rate (V˙) and (b) head loss coefficient (K) as a function of ReDh

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Area-averaged Nusselt number (NuAvg) as a function of pumping power (PPump) for all geometries tested, over an area of 3Dh × 3Dh from the stagnation point along the major and minor axes

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