0
Research Papers: Experimental Techniques

Phase-Change Heat Transfer Measurements Using Temperature-Sensitive Paints

[+] Author and Article Information
Husain Al Hashimi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: halhashimi88@gmail.com

Caleb F. Hammer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: chammer7@terpmail.umd.edu

Michel T. Lebon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: michel.lebon01@gmail.com

Dan Zhang

School of Energy & Power Engineering,
Xi’an Jiatong University,
No. 28 Xianning West Road,
Shaanxi, Xi’an 710049, China
e-mail: zhangdan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Jungho Kim

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: kimjh@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 5, 2017; published online November 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 140(3), 031601 (Nov 21, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1336; doi: 10.1115/1.4038135 History: Received June 10, 2017; Revised August 05, 2017

Techniques based on temperature-sensitive paints (TSP) to measure time-resolved temperature and heat transfer distributions at the interface between a wall and fluid during pool and flow boiling are described. The paints are excited using ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs), and changes in fluorescence intensity are used to infer local temperature differences across a thin insulator from which heat flux distribution is obtained. Advantages over infrared (IR) thermometry include the ability to use substrates that are opaque to IR (e.g., glass, plexiglass and plastic films), use of low-cost optical cameras, no self-emission from substrates to complicate data interpretation, high speed, and high spatial resolution. TSP-based methods to measure wall heat transfer distributions are validated and then demonstrated for pool and flow boiling.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Theofanous, T. G. , Tu, J. P. , Dinh, A. T. , and Dinh, T. N. , 2002, “ The Boiling Crisis Phenomenon Part I: Nucleation and Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26(6–7), pp. 775–792. [CrossRef]
Theofanous, T. G. , Dinh, T. N. , Tu, J. P. , and Dinh, A. T. , 2002b, “ The Boiling Crisis Phenomenon—Part II: Dryout Dynamics and Burnout,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26(6–7), pp. 793–810. [CrossRef]
Golobic, I. , Petkovsek, J. , Baselj, M. , Papez, A. , and Kenning, D. B. R. , 2009, “ Experimental Determination of Transient Wall Temperature Distributions Close to Growing Vapor Bubbles,” Heat Mass Transfer, 45(7), pp. 857–866. [CrossRef]
Schweizer, N. , and Stephan, P. , 2009, “ Experimental Study of Bubble Behavior and Local Heat Flux in Pool Boiling Under Variable Gravitational Conditions,” Multiphase Sci. Technol., 21(4), pp. 329–350.
Fischer, S. , Herbert, S. , Sielaff, A. , Slomski, E. M. , Stephan, P. , and Oechsner, M. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation of Nucleate Boiling on a Thermal Capacitive Heater Under Variable Gravity Conditions,” Microgravity Sci Technol., 24(3), pp. 139–146. [CrossRef]
Gerardi, C. , Buongiorno, J. , Hu, L. W. , and McKrell, T. , 2010, “ Study of Bubble Growth in Water Pool Boiling Through Synchronized, Infrared Thermometry and High-Speed Video,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 53(19), pp. 4185–4192. [CrossRef]
Krebs, D. , Narayanan, V. , Liburdy, J. , and Pence, D. , 2010, “ Spatially Resolved Wall Temperature Measurements During Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(4), pp. 434–445. [CrossRef]
Shen, J. , Graber, C. , Liburdy, J. , Pence, D. , and Narayanan, V. , 2010, “ Simultaneous Droplet Impingement Dynamics and Heat Transfer on Nano-Structured Surfaces,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 34(4), pp. 496–503. [CrossRef]
Mani, P. , Cardenas, R. , and Narayanan, V. , 2011, “Submerged Jet Impingement Boiling on a Polished Silicon Surface,” ASME Paper No. IPACK2011-52042.
Sefiane, K. , Moffat, J. R. , Matar, O. K. , and Craster, R. V. , 2008, “ Self-Excited Hydrothermal Waves in Evaporating Sessile Drops,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 93(7), p. 074103. [CrossRef]
Solotych, V. , Kim, J. , and Dessiatoun, S. , 2014, “ Local Heat Transfer Measurements Within a Representative Plate Heat Exchanger Geometry Using Infrared (IR) Thermography,” J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 21(4–5), pp. 353–372. [CrossRef]
Solotych, V. , Lee, D. , Kim, J. , Amalfi, R. L. , and Thome, J. , 2016, “ Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Pressure Drops Within Compact Plate Heat Exchangers: Experiments and Flow Visualizations,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 94, pp. 239–253. [CrossRef]
Jung, S. , and Kim, H. , 2015, “ An Experimental Study on Heat Transfer Mechanisms in the Microlayer Using Integrated Total Reflection, Laser Interferometry and Infrared Thermometry Technique,” Heat Transfer Eng., 36(12), pp. 1002–1012.
Kim, T. H. , Kommer, E. , Dessiatoun, S. , and Kim, J. , 2012, “ Measurement of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer Parameters Using Infrared Thermometry,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 40, pp. 56–67. [CrossRef]
Scammell, A. , and Kim, J. , 2015, “ Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics of Rising Taylor Bubbles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 89, pp. 379–389. [CrossRef]
Scammell, A. , Kim, J. , Magnini, M. , and Thome, J. , 2016, “ A Study of Gravitational Effects on Single Elongated Vapor Bubbles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 99, pp. 904–917. [CrossRef]
Antonelli, G. A. , Perrin, B. , Daly, B. C. , and Cahill, D. G. , 2006, “ Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Properties Using Ultrafast Optical Metrology,” MRS Bull., 31(8), pp. 607–613. [CrossRef]
Kenning, D. B. R. , Kono, T. , and Wienecke, M. , 2001, “ Investigation of Boiling Heat Transfer by Liquid Crystal Thermography,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 25(5), pp. 219–229. [CrossRef]
Bayazit, B. B. , Hollingsworth, D. K. , and Witte, L. C. , 2003, “ Heat Transfer Enhancement Caused by Sliding Bubbles,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(3), pp. 503–509. [CrossRef]
Daniel, E. , Hollingsworth, D. K. , and Witte, L. , 2007, “ Transition From Boiling Onset to Fully-Developed Nucleate Boiling in a Narrow Vertical Channel,” Heat Transfer Eng., 28(10), pp. 885–894. [CrossRef]
Piasecka, M. , 2013, “ Determination of the Temperature Field Using Liquid Crystal Thermography and Analysis of Two-Phase Flow Structures in Research on Boiling Heat Transfer in a Minichannel,” Metrology Meas. Syst., 20(2), pp. 205–216.
Liu, T. , and Sullivan, J. P. , 2005, Pressure and Temperature Sensitive Paints, Springer, Berlin.
Wang, X. , Wolfbeis, O. S. , and Meier, R. , 2013, “ Luminescent Probes and Sensors for Temperature,” Chem. Soc. Rev., 42(19), pp. 7834–7869. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kurits, I. , 2008, “Quantitative Global Heat-Transfer Measurements Using Temperature-Sensitive Paint on a Blunt Body in Hypersonic Flows”, M.S. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. https://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/8302
Bhandari, P. , 2012, “Evaluation and Improvement of Temperature Sensitive Paint Data Reduction Process Through Analysis of Tunnel Data,” M.S. thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD. https://drum.lib.umd.edu/handle/1903/13564
Li, S. , Zhang, K. , Yang, J. M. , Lin, L. , and Yang, H. , 2007, “ Single Quantum Dots as Local Temperature Markers,” Nano Lett., 7(10), pp. 3102–3105. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sakaue, H. , Aikawa, A. , Iijima, Y. , Kuriki, T. , and Miyazaki, T. , 2012, “ Quantum Dots as Global Temperature Measurements,” Quantum Dots-A Variety of New Applications, Ameenah Al-Ahmade , ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. [CrossRef]
Ozawa, H. , Laurence, S. J. , Martinez Schramm, J. , Wagner, A. , and Hannemann, K. , 2015, “ Fast-Response Temperature-Sensitive-Paint Measurements on a Hypersonic Transition Cone,” Exp. Fluids, 56(2–13), p. 1853. [CrossRef]
Jorge, P. A. S. , Mayeh, M. , Benrashid, R. , Caldas, P. , Santos, J. L. , and Farahi, F. , 2006, “ Quantum Dots as Self-Reference Optical Fibre Temperature Probes for Luminescent Chemical Sensors,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 17(5), pp. 1032–1038. [CrossRef]
Wang, H. , Yang, A. , Chen, Z. , and Geng, Y. , 2014, “ Reflective Photoluminescence Fiber Temperature Probe Based on the CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Thin Film,” Opt. Spectrosc., 117(2), pp. 235–239. [CrossRef]
Bueno, A. , Suarez, I. , and Abargues, R. , Sales, S. , and Martinez Pastor, J. , 2012, “ Temperature Sensor Based on Colloidal Quantum Dots–PMMA Nanocomposite Waveguides,” IEEE Sens. J., 12(10), pp. 3069–3074. [CrossRef]
Al Hashimi, H. , and Kim, J. , 2016, “ Quantum Dot Temperature Sensor Ab Initio Test: Droplet Vaporization Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. HT2016-7164.
Campbell, B. T. , Liu, T. , and Sullivan, J. P. , 1994, “Temperature Sensitive Fluorescent Paint Systems,” AIAA Paper No. 94-2483.
Kim , M. , and Yoda, M. , 2010, “Fluorescence Thermometry for Measuring Wall Surface and Bulk Fluid Temperatures,” ASME Paper No. IHTC14-22884.
Shibuya, A. , Ueki, R. , Suzuki, Y. , and Tange, M. , 2016, “ Temporal Temperature Distribution Measurement of a Heat Transfer Surface of a Flow Boiling Heat Sink With a Micro-Gap Using Temperature Sensitive Paint,” First Pacific Rim Thermal Engineering Conference, Waikoloa, HI, Mar. 13–16, Paper No. PRTEC-14900.
Mills, A. , 1997, “ Optical Oxygen Sensors Utilizing the Luminescence of Platinum Metal Complexes,” Platinum Met. Rev., 41(3), pp. 115–127.
Huang, C. , 2006, “Molecular Sensors for MEMS.” Ph.D. thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Moaveni, S. , and Kim, J. , 2017, “ An Inverse Solution for Reconstruction of the Heat Transfer Coefficient From the Knowledge of Two Temperature Values in a Solid Substrate,” Inverse Problems Sci. Eng., 25(1), pp. 129–153. [CrossRef]
Leinhard, J. H. , and Dhir, V. K. , 1973, “Extended Hydrodynamic Theory of the Peak and Minimum Pool Boiling Heat Fluxes,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, Report No. NASA-CR-2270. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730019076
Zuber, N. , 1959, “Hydrodynamic Aspects of Boiling Heat Transfer,” United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC, Report No. AECU-4439. https://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/4175511/
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2002, “ Insight Into Mechanisms and Review of Available Models for Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in Pool Boiling,” First International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics (HEFAT), Limpopo and Mpumalanga, South Africa, Apr. 8–10. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.598.3880&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Jung, J. H. , Kim, S. J. , and Kim, J. , 2013, “ Observations of the Critical Heat Flux Process During Pool Boiling of FC-72,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 136(4), p. 041501. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , 2011, “ Enhancement of Critical Heat Flux in Nucleate Boiling of Nanofluids: A State-of-Art Review,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., a Springer Open J., 6, p. 415. [CrossRef]
Kim, H. , DeWitt, G. , McKrell, T. , Buongiorno, J. , and Hu, L. W. , “ On the Quenching of Steel and Zircaloy Spheres in Water-Based Nanofluids With Alumina, Silica and Diamond Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 35(5), pp. 427–438. [CrossRef]
Unal, C. , Daw, V. , and Nelson, R. A. , 1992, “ Unifying the Controlling Mechanisms for the Critical Heat Flux and Quenching: The Ability of Liquid to Contact the Hot Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 114(4), pp. 972–982. [CrossRef]
Incropera, F. P. , DeWitt, D. P. , Bergman, T. L. , and Lavine, A. S. , 2007, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Davis, L. P. , and Perona, J. J. , 1971, “ Development of Free Convection Flow of a Gas in a Heated Vertical Open Tube,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 14(7), pp. 889–903. [CrossRef]
Shah, R. K. , and London, A. L. , 1978, Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts (A Sourcebook For Compact Heat Transfer Exchange Analytical Data), Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Stephan, K. , 1962, “ Wärmeübergang bei turbulenter und bei laminarer Strömung in Ringspalten,” Chem. Ing. Tech., 34(3), pp. 207–212. [CrossRef]
Popiel, C. O. , 2008, “ Free Convection Heat Transfer From Vertical Slender Cylinders: A Review,” Heat Transfer Eng., 29(6), pp. 521–536. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Phase lag technique (left) and decay time technique (right) for measuring emission lifetime

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Quantum dot emission from dots of increasing size from left to right2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of quantum dots (Li et al. [26]): (a) spectrum at various temperatures, (b) effect on intensity, and (c) effect on spectral width

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of TSP measurement system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Spectral and emission intensity characterization. Left: Spectral characteristics of the emission and excitation sources. Right: TSP intensity characteristics with temperature and various LED intensity.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Noise for three 12-bit CMOS cameras at a representative pixel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Example of photobleaching of the TSP due to extended exposure to light from a UV LED flashlight

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Heater test section construction for pool boiling (not to scale) (This is available under the “Supplemental Data” tab for this paper on the ASME Digital Collection.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Pool boiling experimental facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Thermal resistance circuit representation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

TSP intensity (left), the reduced wall temperature (middle), and wall heat flux (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pool boiling curve and comparison with CHF correlations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Wall temperature versus dot temperature, Left: nucleate boiling (qw″ = 9.0 W/cm2); Right: post-CHF condition (qw″ = 19.9 W/cm2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Surface heat flux distribution at various heat loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Heat flux distribution versus time at a wall heat flux of 19.9 W/cm2, as liquid advances (solid arrows) and recedes (dotted arrows) on the surface. The field of view is approximately 6 mm × 6 mm. A movie of the raw camera images and the temperature and heat flux distributions is available under the “Supplemental Data” tab for this paper on the ASME Digital Collection.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Heat flux evolution during advancing and receding of liquid on the surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Schematic of flow boiling heat transfer measurement (not to scale)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Flow boiling test loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Comparison between experimental data and mixed convection correlation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Visualization (left) and heat flux (middle and right) versus time during flow boiling of HFE-7000 during downward flow at 100 ml/min, 7.1 °C subcooling, 0.74 W/cm2, and P = 0.89 bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Linear heat conduction instrument

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Schematic of specific heat measurement test section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Numerical and measurement results

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Evolution of wall heat flux with time for different heat capacity values

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In