Research Papers: Experimental Techniques

Phase-Change Heat Transfer Measurements Using Temperature-Sensitive Paints

[+] Author and Article Information
Husain Al Hashimi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: halhashimi88@gmail.com

Caleb F. Hammer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: chammer7@terpmail.umd.edu

Michel T. Lebon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: michel.lebon01@gmail.com

Dan Zhang

School of Energy & Power Engineering,
Xi’an Jiatong University,
No. 28 Xianning West Road,
Shaanxi, Xi’an 710049, China
e-mail: zhangdan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

Jungho Kim

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 20742
e-mail: kimjh@umd.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received June 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 5, 2017; published online November 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Gennady Ziskind.

J. Heat Transfer 140(3), 031601 (Nov 21, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1336; doi: 10.1115/1.4038135 History: Received June 10, 2017; Revised August 05, 2017

Techniques based on temperature-sensitive paints (TSP) to measure time-resolved temperature and heat transfer distributions at the interface between a wall and fluid during pool and flow boiling are described. The paints are excited using ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs), and changes in fluorescence intensity are used to infer local temperature differences across a thin insulator from which heat flux distribution is obtained. Advantages over infrared (IR) thermometry include the ability to use substrates that are opaque to IR (e.g., glass, plexiglass and plastic films), use of low-cost optical cameras, no self-emission from substrates to complicate data interpretation, high speed, and high spatial resolution. TSP-based methods to measure wall heat transfer distributions are validated and then demonstrated for pool and flow boiling.

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Fig. 4

Schematic of TSP measurement system

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Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of quantum dots (Li et al. [26]): (a) spectrum at various temperatures, (b) effect on intensity, and (c) effect on spectral width

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Fig. 2

Quantum dot emission from dots of increasing size from left to right2

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Fig. 1

Phase lag technique (left) and decay time technique (right) for measuring emission lifetime

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Fig. 5

Spectral and emission intensity characterization. Left: Spectral characteristics of the emission and excitation sources. Right: TSP intensity characteristics with temperature and various LED intensity.

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Fig. 6

Noise for three 12-bit CMOS cameras at a representative pixel

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Fig. 7

Example of photobleaching of the TSP due to extended exposure to light from a UV LED flashlight

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Fig. 8

Heater test section construction for pool boiling (not to scale) (This is available under the “Supplemental Data” tab for this paper on the ASME Digital Collection.)

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Fig. 11

TSP intensity (left), the reduced wall temperature (middle), and wall heat flux (right)

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Fig. 9

Pool boiling experimental facility

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Fig. 10

Thermal resistance circuit representation

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Fig. 15

Heat flux distribution versus time at a wall heat flux of 19.9 W/cm2, as liquid advances (solid arrows) and recedes (dotted arrows) on the surface. The field of view is approximately 6 mm × 6 mm. A movie of the raw camera images and the temperature and heat flux distributions is available under the “Supplemental Data” tab for this paper on the ASME Digital Collection.

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Fig. 16

Heat flux evolution during advancing and receding of liquid on the surface

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Fig. 17

Schematic of flow boiling heat transfer measurement (not to scale)

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Fig. 18

Flow boiling test loop

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Fig. 12

Pool boiling curve and comparison with CHF correlations

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Fig. 13

Wall temperature versus dot temperature, Left: nucleate boiling (qw″ = 9.0 W/cm2); Right: post-CHF condition (qw″ = 19.9 W/cm2)

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Fig. 14

Surface heat flux distribution at various heat loads

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Fig. 19

Comparison between experimental data and mixed convection correlation

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Fig. 20

Visualization (left) and heat flux (middle and right) versus time during flow boiling of HFE-7000 during downward flow at 100 ml/min, 7.1 °C subcooling, 0.74 W/cm2, and P = 0.89 bar

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Fig. 21

Linear heat conduction instrument

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Fig. 22

Schematic of specific heat measurement test section

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Fig. 23

Numerical and measurement results

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Fig. 24

Evolution of wall heat flux with time for different heat capacity values



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