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Research Papers: Micro/Nanoscale Heat Transfer

Direct Numerical Simulation of the Microscale Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Three-Phase Contact Line Region During Evaporation

[+] Author and Article Information
Stefan Batzdorf

Institute for Technical Thermodynamics,
Center of Smart Interfaces,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany

Tatiana Gambaryan-Roisman

Apl. Professor
Institute for Technical Thermodynamics,
Center of Smart Interfaces,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: gtatiana@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

Peter Stephan

Professor
Institute for Technical Thermodynamics,
Center of Smart Interfaces,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: pstephan@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received September 26, 2016; final manuscript received August 15, 2017; published online November 7, 2017. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 140(3), 032401 (Nov 07, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1606; doi: 10.1115/1.4038191 History: Received September 26, 2016; Revised August 15, 2017

The heat and mass transfer close to the apparent three-phase contact line is of tremendous importance in many evaporation processes. Despite the extremely small dimensions of this region referred to as the microregion compared to the macroscopic length scale of a boiling process, a considerable fraction of heat can be transferred in this region. Due to its small characteristic length scale, physical phenomena are relevant in the microregion, which are completely negligible on the macroscopic scale, including the action of adhesion forces and the interfacial heat resistance. In the past, models have been developed taking these effects into account. However, so far these models are based on the assumption of one-dimensional (1D) heat conduction, and the flow within the thin liquid film forming the microregion near the apparent three-phase contact line is modeled utilizing the lubrication approximation. Hence, the application of existing models is restricted to small apparent contact angles. Moreover, the effects of surface structures or roughness are not included in these lubrication models. To overcome these limitations, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the liquid flow and heat transfer within the microregion is presented in this paper. The DNS is employed for validation of the existing lubrication model and for investigation of the influence of surface nanostructures on the apparent contact angle and in particular on the heat transfer within the microregion.

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References

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Moosman, S. , and Homsy, G. , 1980, “ Evaporating Menisci of Wetting Fluids,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 73(1), pp. 212–223. [CrossRef]
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the microregion

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Fig. 2

Boundary conditions in the microregion

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Fig. 3

Geometrical definitions for curvature calculation [30]

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Fig. 4

Initial shape of the medium mesh used for the microregion simulation on a smooth wall

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Fig. 5

Velocity vectors and isotherms (dashed lines) in the microregion for ΔT = 5 K and ucl = 0. The spacing between the isotherms is 0.5 K.

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Fig. 6

Contact line heat transfer and apparent contact angle for a steady contact line on a smooth wall

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Fig. 7

Wall heat flux in the microregion for ΔT = 20 K and ucl = 0

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Fig. 8

Influence of convection and of 2D heat transfer on the wall heat flux at a wall superheat of ΔT = 5 K for a steady contact line. The change is calculated relative to the heat flux of the complete model (including convective and 2D heat transfer).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contact line heat transfer and apparent contact angle for a moving contact line on a smooth wall at a wall superheat of ΔT = 5 K

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Fig. 10

Influence of convection and of two-dimensional heat transfer on the wall heat flux for an advancing contact line (ucl = 0.1 m/s) at a wall superheat of ΔT = 5 K. The change is calculated relative to the heat flux of the complete model (including convective and two-dimensional heat transfer).

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Fig. 11

Streamlines inside the liquid for an advancing contact line (ucl = 0.1 m/s) within the moving reference frame. A rolling vortex can be observed.

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Fig. 12

Structuring of the wall. The base length and the distance between the cubes is 5 nm.

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Fig. 13

Shape of the interface in the adsorbed film region colored by curvature with lines of constant height, spaced by 0.5 nm. The wall superheat is 5 K.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Top: shape of the interface in the microregion on a nanostructured wall colored by curvature. Bottom: streamlines within the ξ, η- and η, ζ-planes and temperature field in the ξ, η-plane. The wall superheat is 5 K.

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