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Research Papers: Jets, Wakes, and Impingment Cooling

Experimental Investigation of Jet Impingement Cooling With Carbon Dioxide at Supercritical Pressures

[+] Author and Article Information
Kai Chen

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and
Power Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction
Technology of Beijing,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Rui-Na Xu

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power
Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction
Technology of Beijing,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Pei-Xue Jiang

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power
Engineering of Ministry of Education,
Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction
Technology of Beijing,
Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jiangpx@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received April 27, 2017; final manuscript received September 3, 2017; published online January 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Amy Fleischer.

J. Heat Transfer 140(4), 042204 (Jan 10, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1234; doi: 10.1115/1.4038421 History: Received April 27, 2017; Revised September 03, 2017

Jet impingement cooling is widely used in many industrial applications due to its high heat transfer capability and is an option for advanced high power density systems. Jet impingement cooling with supercritical pressure fluids could have much larger heat transfer rates combining with the large fluid specific heat near the pseudocritical point. However, the knowledge of its flow and heat transfer characteristics is limited. In this study, the flow and the local and average heat transfer characteristics of jet impingement cooling with supercritical pressure fluids were studied experimentally with carbon dioxide first. An integrated thermal sensor chip that provided heating and temperature measurements was manufactured using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques with a low thermal conductivity substrate as the impingement cooled plate. The experiment system pressure was 7.85 MPa, which is higher than the critical pressure of carbon dioxide of 7.38 MPa. The mass flow rate ranged from 8.34 to 22.36 kg/h and the Reynolds number ranged from 19,000 to 68,000. The heat flux ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 MW/m2. The nozzle inlet temperature ranged from lower to higher than the pseudocritical temperature. Dramatic variations of the density at supercritical pressures near the heating chip were observed with increasing heat flux in the strong reflection and refraction of the backlight that disappeared at inlet temperatures higher than the pseudocritical temperature. The local heat transfer coefficient near the stagnation point increased with increasing heat flux while those far from the stagnation point increased to a maximum with increasing heat flux and then decreased due to the nonuniformity of jet impingement cooling. The heat transfer is higher at inlet temperatures lower than the pseudocritical temperature and the surface temperature is slightly higher than the pseudocritical temperature due to the dramatic changes in the fluid thermo-physical properties at supercritical pressures.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Carbon dioxide thermophysical property variations with temperature at 7.85 MPa (Tpc = 306.65 K, pc = 7.38 MPa, Tc = 304.13 K)

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental system

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Fig. 3

Photographs of the pressure vessel

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Fig. 4

Flow visualization with increasing heat flux (p = 7.85 MPa, m = 8.34 kg/h, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 5

Flow visualizations for various inlet temperatures (p = 7.85 MPa, Tpc = 33.78 °C, m = 8.91 kg/h, q = 64,000 W/m2, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the integrated circuit heating chip on a Borofloat 33 substrate: (a) structure of the integrated circuit heating chip, (b) top view of the integrated circuit heating chip, and (c) microphotograph of the integrated circuit heating chip

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Fig. 7

Second-order curve fit for the temperature sensor at the stagnation point, U1

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Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the simulation model

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Fig. 9

Heat flux nonuniformity on the chip surface

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Fig. 10

Local heat transfer coefficients for various heat fluxes (p = 7.85 MPa, m = 8.34 kg/h, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 11

Local heat transfer coefficient variations with increasing heat flux (p = 7.85 MPa, m = 8.34 kg/h, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 12

Local temperature variations with increasing heat flux (p = 7.85 MPa, m = 8.34 kg/h, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 13

Variations of (a) the average heat transfer coefficient and (b) the average Nusselt number with increasing heat flux for various mass flow rates (p = 7.85 MPa, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000–51,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 14

Average surface temperatures for various heat fluxes and flow rates (p = 7.85 MPa, Taw = 19.2 °C, Re = 19,000–51,000, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 15

Local heat transfer coefficient distributions for various inlet temperatures (p = 7.85 MPa, Tpc = 33.78 °C, m = 8.91 kg/h, q = 64,000 W/m2, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 16

Local heat transfer coefficient variations for various inlet temperatures (p = 7.85 MPa, Tpc = 33.78 °C, m = 8.91 kg/h, q = 64,000 W/m2, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 17

Local surface temperature distributions for various inlet temperatures (p = 7.85 MPa, Tpc = 33.78 °C, m = 8.91 kg/h, q = 64,000 W/m2, L/dn = 7.3)

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Fig. 18

Variations of (a) the average heat transfer coefficients averaged over Rimp/dn < 2.0 and (b) averaged over Rimp/dn < 5.0 for various inlet temperatures (p = 7.85 MPa, Tpc = 33.78 °C, m = 8.91 kg/h, q = 64,000 W/m2, L/dn = 7.3)

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