0
Research Papers: Heat Exchangers

Modeling of Two-Phase Heat Exchangers With Zeotropic Fluid Mixtures

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Gomse

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Institute of Technical Physics,
Hermann–von–Helmholtz–Platz 1,
Eggenstein–Leopoldshafen 76344, Germany
e-mail: david.gomse@kit.edu

T. M. Kochenburger

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Institute of Technical Thermodynamics
and Refrigeration,
Engler–Bunte–Ring 21,
Karlsruhe 76131, Germany
e-mail: kochenburger@kit.edu

S. Grohmann

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,
Institute of Technical Thermodynamics
and Refrigeration,
Engler–Bunte–Ring 21,
Kavrlsruhe 76131, Germany
e-mail: steffen.grohmann@kit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received January 18, 2017; final manuscript received December 15, 2017; published online January 30, 2018. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 140(5), 051801 (Jan 30, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4038852 History: Received January 18, 2017; Revised December 15, 2017

Heat exchangers are important components in many engineering applications. This paper proposes a numerical two-phase heat exchanger model with simultaneous heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. The presented model provides a modeling framework compatible with numerous different correlations for both single- and two-phase flow of pure fluids and fluid mixtures. Furthermore, it considers nonconstant fluid properties as well as longitudinal heat conduction and parasitic heat loads, which is particularly relevant in mixed refrigerant cycles for cooling of low-temperature applications. The governing equations are derived and the solution strategy is presented, followed by the model validation against analytical solutions in the corresponding limits. Finally, an exemplary heat exchanger is analyzed using both homogeneous and separated flow models, and the results are compared with experimental data from literature.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Pacio, J. C. , and Dorao, C. A. , 2011, “A Review on Heat Exchanger Thermal Hydraulic Models for Cryogenic Applications,” Cryogenics, 51(7), pp. 366–379. [CrossRef]
Kroeger, P. G. , 1967, “Performance Deterioration in High Effectiveness Heat Exchangers Due to Axial Heat Conduction Effects,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 12, K. D. Timmerhaus , ed., Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 363–372. [CrossRef]
Narayanan, S. P. , and Venkatarathnam, G. , 1998, “Performance Degradation Due to Longitudinal Heat Conduction in Very High Ntu Counterflow Heat Exchangers,” Cryogenics, 38(9), pp. 927–930. [CrossRef]
Chowdhury, K. , and Sarangi, S. , 1984, “Performance of Cryogenic Heat Exchangers With Heat Leak From the Surroundings,” Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 29, R. W. Fast , ed., Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 273–280. [CrossRef]
Nellis, G. F. , and Pfotenhauer, J. M. , 2004, “Effectiveness-NTU Relationship for a Counterflow Heat Exchanger Subjected to an External Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(9), pp. 1071–1073. [CrossRef]
Nellis, G. F. , 2003, “A Heat Exchanger Model That Includes Axial Conduction, Parasitic Heat Loads, and Property Variations,” Cryogenics, 43(9), pp. 523–538. [CrossRef]
Corberán, J. M. , de Córdoba, P. F. , Gonzálvez, J. , and Alias, F. , 2001, “Semiexplicit Method for Wall Temperature Linked Equations (Sewtle): A General Finite-Volume Technique for the Calculation of Complex Heat Exchangers,” Numer. Heat Transfer: Part B: Fundam., 40(1), pp. 37–59. [CrossRef]
Corberán, J. M. , de Córdoba, P. F. , Gonzalvez, S. , Ortuno, V. , Ferri, J. , Setaro, T. , and Boccardi, G. , 2000, “Modelling of Compact Evaporators and Condensers,” WIT Trans. Eng. Sci., 27, pp. 487–496.
Damle, R. M. , Ardhapurkar, P. M. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2015, “Numerical Analysis of the Two-Phase Heat Transfer in the Heat Exchanger of a Mixed Refrigerant Joule–Thomson Cryocooler,” Cryogenics, 72(1), pp. 103–110. [CrossRef]
Damle, R. M. , Ardhapurkar, P. M. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2017, “Numerical Simulation of Tubes-in-Tube Heat Exchanger in a Mixed Refrigerant Joule–Thomson Cryocooler,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 171(1), p. 012070. [CrossRef]
Fronk, B. M. , and Garimella, S. , 2013, “In-Tube Condensation of Zeotropic Fluid Mixtures: A Review,” Int. J. Refrig., 36(2), pp. 534–561. [CrossRef]
Colburn, A. P. , and Drew, T. B. , 1937, The Condensation of Mixed Vapors, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York.
Fronk, B. M. , and Garimella, S. , 2016, “Condensation of Ammonia and High-Temperature-Glide Zeotropic Ammoniawater Mixtures in Minichannels—Part II: Heat Transfer Models,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 101, pp. 1357–1373. [CrossRef]
Granryd, E. , 1991, “Heat Transfer in Flow Evaporation of Nonazeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures a Theoretical Approach,” 18th International Congress of Refrigeration, Montreal, QC, Canada, Aug. 10–17, pp. 1330–1334.
Barraza, R. , Nellis, G. , Klein, S. , and Reindl, D. , 2015, “Description and Validation of the Little Correlation for Boiling Zeotropic Mixtures in Horizontal Tubes From Cryogenic to Room Temperature,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 101, p. 012132. [CrossRef]
Silver, L. , 1947, “Gas Cooling With Aqueous Condensation,” Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng., 25(3), pp. 30–42.
Bell, K. J. , and Ghaly, M. A. , 1973, “Approximate Generalized Design Method for Multicomponent/Partial Condensers,” AIChE Symp. Ser., 69(131), pp. 72–79.
Del Col, D. , Cavallini, A. , and Thome, J. R. , 2005, “Condensation of Zeotropic Mixtures in Horizontal Tubes: New Simplified Heat Transfer Model Based on Flow Regimes,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(3), pp. 221–230. [CrossRef]
Ardhapurkar, P. M. , Sridharan, A. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2014, “Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients at Cryogenic Temperatures for Multi-Component Refrigerant Mixtures of Nitrogen–Hydrocarbons,” Cryogenics, 59, pp. 84–92. [CrossRef]
Ardhapurkar, P. M. , Sridharan, A. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2014, “Performance Evaluation of Heat Exchanger for Mixed Refrigerant J–T Cryocooler,” Cryogenics, 63, pp. 49–56. [CrossRef]
Barraza, R. , Nellis, G. , Klein, S. , and Reindl, D. , 2016, “Measured and Predicted Heat Transfer Coefficients for Boiling Zeotropic Mixed Refrigerants in Horizontal Tubes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 97, pp. 683–695. [CrossRef]
Bogacki, P. , and Shampine, L. , 1996,” An Efficient Runge-Kutta (4,5) Pair,” Comput. Math. Appl., 32(6), pp. 15–28. [CrossRef]
Shampine, L. F. , 1994, Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations, Vol. 4, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Gustafsson, K. , 1991, “Control Theoretic Techniques for Stepsize Selection in Explicit Runge-Kutta Methods,” ACM Trans. Math. Software, 17(4), pp. 533–554. [CrossRef]
Wolfram Research, 2016, “Mathematica 11.0.1.0,” Woflram Research Inc., Campaign, IL.
Ardhapurkar, P. M. , Sridharan, A. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2014, “Experimental Investigation on Temperature Profile and Pressure Drop in Two-Phase Heat Exchanger for Mixed Refrigerant Joule–Thomson Cryocooler,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 66(1–2), pp. 94–103. [CrossRef]
Ardhapurkar, P. M. , and Atrey, M. D. , 2015, “Prediction of Two-Phase Pressure Drop in Heat Exchanger for Mixed Refrigerant Joule-Thomson Cryocooler,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 101, p. 012111. [CrossRef]
Whalley, P. B. , 1987, Boiling, Condensation, and Gas-Liquid Flow (Oxford Engineering Science Series), Vol. 21, Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK/New York.
Chisholm, D. , 1972, “Equation for Velocity Ratio in Two-Phase Flow,” National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride Glasgow, UK, NEL Report No. 535.
Lemmon, E. W. , Huber, M. L. , and McLinden, M. O. , 2013, “REFPROP: NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.
Kunz, O. , and Wagner, W. , 2012, “The Gerg-2008 Wide-Range Equation of State for Natural Gases and Other Mixtures an Expansion of Gerg-2004,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 57(11), pp. 3032–3091. [CrossRef]
Aspen Technology, 2014, “Aspen plus v8.6,” Aspen Technology Inc., Burlington, MA.
Eckels Engineering, 2009, “Cryocomp,” Eckels Engineering Inc., Florence, SC.
VDI, 2010, VDI Heat Atlas, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin.
Cavallini, A. , and Zecchin, R. , 1974, “A Dimensionless Correlation for Heat Transfer in Forced Convection Condensation,” Fifth International Heat Transfer Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 3–7, pp. 309–313.
Kim, S.-M. , and Mudawar, I. , 2012, “Universal Approach to Predicting Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop for Adiabatic and Condensing Mini/Micro-Channel Flows,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(11), pp. 3246–3261. [CrossRef]
Macdonald, M. , and Garimella, S. , 2016, “Modeling of In-Tube Condensation of Zeotropic Mixtures,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 138(9), p. 091502. [CrossRef]
Reid, R. C. , Prausnitz, J. M. , and Poling, B. E. , 1987, The Properties of Gases and Liquids, Vol. 4, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Representation of the wall temperature grid refining scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Control volume and energy flows for the energy balance on the kth wall element of the heat exchanger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison between the temperature profiles predicted with the homogeneous flow model (lines) and experimental data extracted from Fig. 8 in Ref. [26] (symbols)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison between the temperature profiles predicted with the separated flow model (lines) and experimental data extracted from Fig. 8 in Ref. [26] (symbols)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Temperature profile for the heat transfer from fluid i to the wall

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Flowchart of the numerical solution algorithm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Numerically predicted ineffectiveness (symbols) compared with Kroeger's analytical solution [2] (lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Numerically predicted ineffectiveness (symbols) compared with Chowdhury's analytical solution [4] (lines)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison between the hot and cold side heat transfer coefficients predicted with the separated flow model

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In