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Research Papers: Max Jakob Award Paper

Effects of Surface Roughness and Bend Geometry on Mass Transfer in an S-Shaped Back to Back Bend at Reynolds Number of 200,000

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Wang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada

D. Ewing

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada

C. Y. Ching

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: chingcy@mcmaster.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 30, 2017; final manuscript received November 21, 2017; published online March 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yuwen Zhang.

J. Heat Transfer 140(7), 073001 (Mar 30, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1311; doi: 10.1115/1.4038844 History: Received May 30, 2017; Revised November 21, 2017

Experiments were performed to investigate the local development of roughness and its effect on mass transfer in an S-shaped bend at Reynolds number of 200,000. The tests were performed over four consecutive time periods using a 203-mm-diameter test section with a dissolving gypsum lining to water in a closed flow loop at a Schmidt number of 1200. The surface roughness and the mass transfer over the test periods were measured using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the surface. Two regions of high mass transfer are found: along the intrados of the first and second bends. The surface roughness in these two regions, characterized by the height-to-spacing ratio, grows more rapidly than in the upstream pipe. There is an increase in the mass transfer with time, which corresponds well with the local increase in the height-to-spacing ratio of the roughness. The two regions of high mass transfer enhancement in the bend can be attributed to both a roughness effect and a flow effect due to the bend geometry. The geometry effect was determined by normalizing the local mass transfer with that in a straight pipe with equivalent surface roughness. The mass transfer enhancement due to the geometry effect was found to be relatively constant for the two high mass transfer regions, with a value of approximately 1.5.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three typical configurations of back to back dual bends with twist different angles: (0 deg: S-shape, 90 deg: out of plane, and 180 deg: C-shape)

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of experimental flow loop

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the test section showing the section planes relative to (a) streamwise direction, (b) circumferential direction in the first bend, and (c) circumferential direction in the second bend

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Fig. 4

Three-dimensional contours of local Sherwood number over the entire inner surface of the S-bend averaged in last period (14.3–19 h): (a) along first bend intrados and (b) along second bend intrados

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Fig. 5

Contours of local Sherwood number over the entire inner surface of the S-bend in four time (modified time) periods: (a) 0–4.9 h, (b) 4.9–9.7 h, (c) 9.7–14.3 h, and (d) 14.3–19 h

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Fig. 6

Streamwise variations of Sherwood number along four crosswise angles: (a)−180 deg, (b) −90 deg, (c) 0 deg, and (d) 90 deg of the S-bend in four time periods (circle: 0–4.9 h, square: 4.9–9.7 h, triangle: 9.7–14.3 h; and inverted triangle: 14.3–19 h)

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Fig. 7

Azimuthal variations of Sherwood number at different streamwise locations along the S-bend in four time periods (symbols as in Fig. 6)

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Fig. 8

Contours of surface roughness over the entire inner surface of the S-bend for the four tests: (a) unworn, (b) 4.9 h, (c) 9.7 h, (d) 14.3 h, and (e) 19 h

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Fig. 9

Streamwise variations of peak to valley roughness height along four crosswise angles: (a) −180 deg, (b) −90 deg, (c) 0 deg, and (d) 90 deg of the S-bend at different modified times (circle: t = 4.9 h, square: t = 9.7 h, triangle: t = 14.3 h; and inverted triangle: t = 19 h)

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Fig. 10

Streamwise variations of streamwise spacing along four crosswise angles: (a) −180 deg, (b) −90 deg, (c) 0 deg, and (d) 90 deg of the S-bend at different modified times (symbols as in Fig. 9)

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Fig. 11

Streamwise variations of height-to-spacing ratio along four crosswise angles: (a) −180 deg, (b) −90 deg, (c) 0 deg, and (d) 90 deg of the S-bend at different modified times (symbols as in Fig. 9)

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Fig. 12

Streamwise variations of Sherwood number normalized by Sherwood number with equivalent roughness in pipes [21] (Sh/Sheq) along four crosswise angles: (a) −180 deg, (b) −90 deg, (c) 0 deg, and (d) 90 deg of the S-bend at different modified times (symbols as in Fig. 6)

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Fig. 13

Variations of Sh/Sheq with height-to-spacing ratio in the high mass transfer regions along first bend intrados and second bend intrados

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