0
Research Papers: Natural and Mixed Convection

Magnetohydrodynamics Natural Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled With a Cu-Al2O3/Water Hybrid Nanofluid With Localized Heating From Below and Internal Heat Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
A. M. Rashad

Department of Mathematics,
Faculty of Science,
Aswan University,
Aswan 81528, Egypt

Ali J. Chamkha

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Prince Sultan Endowment for
Energy and Environment,
Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University,
Al-Khobar 31952, Saudi Arabia;
RAK Research and Innovation Center,
American University of Ras Al Khaimah,
P.O. Box 10021,
Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

Muneer A. Ismael

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Engineering College,
University of Basrah,
Basrah 61004, Iraq
e-mail: muneer.ismael@uobasrah.edu.iq

Taha Salah

Basic and Applied Sciences Department,
College of Engineering and Technology,
Arab Academy for Science & Technology and
Maritime Transport (AASTMT),
Aswan Branch,
P.O. Box 11,
Aswan, Egypt

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received October 31, 2016; final manuscript received January 6, 2018; published online March 30, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Antonio Barletta.

J. Heat Transfer 140(7), 072502 (Mar 30, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: HT-16-1707; doi: 10.1115/1.4039213 History: Received October 31, 2016; Revised January 06, 2018

This study investigates the convective heat transfer of a hybrid nanofluid filled in a triangular cavity subjected to a constant magnetic field and heated by a constant heat flux element from below. The inclined side of the cavity is cooled isothermally while the remaining sides are thermally insulated. The finite difference method with the stream function-vorticity formulation of the governing equations has been utilized in the numerical solution. The problem is governed by several pertinent parameters namely, the size and position of the heater element, B = 0.2–0.8 and D = 0.3–0.7, respectively, the Rayleigh number, Ra = 102–106, the Hartmann number, Ha = 0–100, the volume fraction of the suspended nanoparticles, ϕ = 0–0.2, and the heat generation parameter Q = 0–6. The results show significant effect of increasing the volume fraction of the hybrid nanofluid when the natural convection is very small. Moreover, the hybrid nanofluid composed of equal quantities of Cu and Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed in water base fluid has no significant enhancement on the mean Nusselt number compared with the regular nanofluid.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Singh, D. , Toutbort, J. , and Chen, G. , 2006, “Heavy Vehicle Systems Optimization Merit Review and Peer Evaluation,” Annual Report, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC, Report No. FY 2006.
Choi, S. U. S. , and Eastman, J. A. , 1995, “ Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Fluids With Nanoparticles,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, San Francisco, CA, Nov. 12--17, Paper No. CONF-951135-29.
Yu, W. , and Xie, H. , 2012, “ A Review on Nanofluids: Preparation, Stability Mechanisms, and Applications,” J. Nanomater., 2012, p. 435873.
Wang, X. Q. , and Mujumdar, A. S. , 2007, “ Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids: A Review,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 46(1), pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Wen, D. , Lin, G. , Vafaei, S. , and Zhang, K. , 2009, “ Review of Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications,” Particuology, 7(2), pp. 141–150. [CrossRef]
Kakaç, S. , and Pramuanjaroenkij, A. , 2009, “ Review of Convective Heat Transfer Enhancement With Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(13–14), pp. 3187–3196. [CrossRef]
Khanafer, K. , and Vafai, K. , 2011, “ A Critical Synthesis of Thermophysical Characteristics of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 54(19–20), pp. 4410–4428. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J. , Liu, W. K. , Chang, Y. S. , and Lin, C. C. , 2010, “ Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Alumina-Water Nanofluid in Vertical Square Enclosures: An Experimental Study,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(8), pp. 1345–1353. [CrossRef]
Khanafer, K. , Vafai, K. , and Lightstone, M. , 2003, “ Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Two-Dimensional Enclosure Utilizing Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(19), pp. 3639–3653. [CrossRef]
Khodadadi, J. M. , and Hosseinizadeh, S. F. , 2007, “ Nanoparticle-Enhanced Phase Change Materials (NEPCM) With Great Potential for Improved Thermal Energy Storage,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 34(5), pp. 534–543. [CrossRef]
Santra, A. K. , Sen, S. , and Chakraborty, N. , 2008, “ Study of Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Differentially Heated Square Cavity Using Copper–Water Nanofluid,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 47(9), pp. 1113–1122. [CrossRef]
Abu-Nada, E. , Masoud, Z. , and Hijazi, A. , 2008, “ Natural Convection Heat Transfer Enhancement in Horizontal Concentric Annuli Using Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 35(5), pp. 657–665. [CrossRef]
Arefmanesh, A. , Amini, M. , Mahmoodia, M. , and Najafi, M. , 2012, “ Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer Analysis in Two-Square Duct Annuli Filled With a Nanofluid,” Eur. J. Mech. B, 33, pp. 95–104. [CrossRef]
Selimefendigil, F. , and Öztop, H. F. , 2016, “ Conjugate Natural Convection in a Cavity With a Conductive Partition and Filled With Different Nanofluids on Different Sides of the Partition,” J. Mol. Liq., 216, pp. 67–77. [CrossRef]
Oztop, H. F. , Estellé, P. , Yan, W. M. , Al-Salem, K. , Orfi, J. , and Mahian, O. , 2015, “ A Brief Review of Natural Convection in Enclosures Under Localized Heating With and Without Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 60, pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Oztop, H. F. , and Abu-Nada, E. , 2008, “ Numerical Study of Natural Convection in Partially Heated Rectangular Enclosures Filled With Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 29(5), pp. 1326–1336. [CrossRef]
Sheikholeslami, M. , Gorji-Bandpy, M. , Ganji, D. D. , and Soleimani, S. , 2014, “ Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Cavity With Sinusoidal Wall Filled With CuO–Water Nanofluid in Presence of Magnetic Field,” J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 45(1), pp. 40–49. [CrossRef]
Malvandi, A. , and Ganji, D. D. , 2015, “ Magnetic Field and Slip Effects on Free Convection Inside a Vertical Enclosure Filled With Alumina/Water Nanofluid,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 94, pp. 355–364. [CrossRef]
Sheremet, M. A. , Oztop, H. F. , and Pop, I. , 2016, “ MHD Natural Convection in an Inclined Wavy Cavity With Corner Heater Filled With a Nanofluid,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 416, pp. 37–47. [CrossRef]
Chamkha, A. J. , and Ismael, M. A. , 2013, “ Conjugate Heat Transfer in a Porous Cavity filled With Nanofluids and Heated by a Triangular Thick Wall,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 67, pp. 135–151. [CrossRef]
Chamkha, A. J. , Ismael, M. A. , Kasaeipoor, A. , and Armaghani, T. , 2016, “Entropy Generation and Natural Convection of CuO-Water Nanofluid in C-Shaped Cavity Under Magnetic Field,” Entropy, 18(2), p. 50. [CrossRef]
Ismael, M. A. , and Chamkha, A. J. , 2015, “ Conjugate Natural Convection in a Differentially Heated Composite Enclosure Filled With a Nanofluid,” J. Porous Media, 18(7), pp. 699–716. [CrossRef]
Ghasemi, B. , and Aminossadati, S. M. , 2010, “ Brownian Motion of Nanoparticles in a Triangular Enclosure With Natural Convection,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(6), pp. 931–940. [CrossRef]
Sun, Q. , and Pop, I. , 2011, “ Free Convection in a Triangle Cavity Filled With a Porous Medium Saturated With Nanofluids With Flush Mounted Heater on the Wall,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(11), pp. 2141–2153. [CrossRef]
Aminossadati, S. M. , and Ghasemi, B. , 2011, “ Enhanced Natural Convection in an Isosceles Triangular Enclosure Filled With a Nanofluid,” Comput. Math. Appl., 61(7), pp. 1739–1753. [CrossRef]
Sheremet, M. A. , and Pop, I. , 2015, “ Free Convection in a Triangular Cavity Filled With a Porous Medium Saturated by a Nanofluid,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow, 25(5), pp. 1138–1161. [CrossRef]
Bondareva, N. S. , Sheremet, M. A. , Oztop, H. F. , and Abu-Hamdeh, N. , 2017, “ Entropy Generation Due to Natural Convection of a Nanofluid in a Partially Open Triangular Cavity,” Adv. Powder Technol., 28(1), pp. 244–255. [CrossRef]
Han, Z. H. , Yang, B. , Kim, S. H. , and Zachariah, M. R. , 2007, “ Application of Hybrid Sphere/Carbon Nanotube Particles in Nanofluids,” Nanotechnol., 18(10), p. 105701. [CrossRef]
Jan, S. , Khojin, A. S. , and Zhong, W. H. , 2007, “ Enhancement of Fluid Thermal Conductivity by the Addition of Single and Hybrid Nano-Additives,” Thermochim Acta, 462(1–2), pp. 45–55. [CrossRef]
Paul, G. , Philip, J. , Raj, B. , Das, P. K. , and Manna, I. , 2011, “ Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Property Measurement of Nano-Al95Zn05 Dispersed Nanofluid Prepared by a Two-Step Process,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 54(15–16), pp. 3783–3788. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, J. , Ghosh, P. , and Adil, A. , 2015, “ A Review on Hybrid Nanofluids: Recent Research, Development and Applications,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 43, pp. 164–177. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J. , Huang, J. B. , Tsai, P. S. , and Yang, Y. M. , 2010, “ Preparation and Properties of Hybrid Water Based Suspension of Al2O3 Nanoparticles and MEPCM Particles as Functional Forced Convection Fluid,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf., 37(5), pp. 490–494. [CrossRef]
Botha, S. S. , Ndungu, P. , and Bladergroen, B. J. , 2011, “ Physicochemical Properties of Oil Based Nanofluids Containing Hybrid Structures of Silver Nanoparticle Supported on Silica,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 50(6), pp. 3071–3077. [CrossRef]
Maxwell, J. C. , 1873, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
Chamkha, A. J. , Miroshnichenko, I. V. , and Sheremet, M. A. , 2017, “ Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Conjugate Natural Convection of Hybrid Water-Based Nanofluid in a Semicircular Cavity,” J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 9(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Armaghani, T. , Kasaeipoor, A. , Alavi, N. , and Rashidi, M. M. , 2016, “ Numerical Investigation of Water-Alumina Nanofluid Natural Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation in a Baffled L Shaped Cavity,” J. Mol. Liq., 223, pp. 243–251. [CrossRef]
Amir Houshang, M. , Ioan, P. , Mina, S. , and Farhad, T. , 2013, “ MHD Natural Convection and Entropy Generation in a Trapezoidal Enclosure Using Cu–Water Nanofluid,” Comput. Fluids, 72, pp. 46–62.
Chamkha, A. J. , and Abu-Nada, E. , 2012, “ Mixed Convection Flow in Single- and Double-Lid Driven Square Cavities Filled With Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid: Effect of Viscosity Models,” Eur. J. Mech. B, 36, pp. 82–96. [CrossRef]
Brinkman, H. C. , 1952, “ The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solution,” J. Chem. Phys., 20(4), pp. 571–581. [CrossRef]
Aminossadati, S. M. , and Ghasemi, B. , 2009, “ Natural Convection Cooling of a Localized Heat Source at the Bottom of a Nanofluid-Filled Enclosure,” Eur. J. Mech. B, 28(5), pp. 630–640. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the present geometry and coordinate system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The uniform mesh grid (81 × 81) used in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of the present isotherms (right) and those obtained by Aminossadati and Ghasemi [40] (left) at B = 0.4 and Ra=105,ϕ=0.1,D=0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Profiles of the local Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Profiles of the local Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at ϕ = 0.05, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Profiles of the local Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Profiles of the local Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Profiles of the local Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Variation of the average Nusselt number for hybrid suspension at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

(a) Streamlines and (b) isotherms at Ha = 10, ϕ = 0.05, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Variation of the average Nusselt number at Ha = 10, D = 0.5, B = 0.5, Ra = 104, Q = 1

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In