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Research Papers: Heat Transfer Enhancement

Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement of Nano Liquid-Metal Fluid Forced Convection in Circular Tube

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoming Zhou

School of Energy and Power Engineering,
Jiangsu University,
Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, China;
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Academy of Chinese Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: zxmujs@163.com

Xunfeng Li, Keyong Cheng

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Academy of Chinese Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

Xiulan Huai

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Academy of Chinese Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China;
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: hxl@iet.cn

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received May 30, 2017; final manuscript received March 11, 2018; published online May 7, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Antonio Barletta.

J. Heat Transfer 140(8), 081901 (May 07, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1312; doi: 10.1115/1.4039685 History: Received May 30, 2017; Revised March 11, 2018

Investigation of nano liquid-metal fluid (consists of liquid metal Ga and nanoparticles copper) as heat transfer medium in circular tube is performed for the first time. The numerical simulations of heat transfer enhancement of nano liquid-metal fluid in a circular tube subject to a constant wall heat flux are carried out, and the heat transfer performance is evaluated. The two-phase mixture model is used to simulate the flow of nanoparticles–liquid mixture for Reynolds number (Re) from 250 to 1000 and nanoparticle volume fraction (αp) from 0 to 0.1. The results show that the average heat transfer coefficient of nano liquid-metal fluid Ga–Cu is 23.8 times of that of nanofluid water–Cu at Re = 500 and αp = 0.04, and the average wall shear stress of Ga–Cu is 0.0154 Pa, whereas for water–Cu, it is 0.0259 Pa. As Re increases from 250 to 1000, the average heat transfer coefficient of water–Cu is improved by 40%, whereas for Ga–Cu, it is 45.4%. Based on the results in the paper, the nano liquid-metal fluid can be considered as an excellent heat transfer medium of forced convection in circular tube.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Comparison of temperature and heat transfer coefficient profiles at tube wall with the results of Bianco et al. [13] (water–Al2O3 nanofluid, Re = 250, and q0 = 5000 W/m2)

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Fig. 3

Tube wall temperature (a) and bulk temperature (b) distribution for Re = 500, q0 = 1000 W/m2, and αp = 0.04

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Fig. 4

Heat transfer coefficient distribution at tube wall for Re = 500, q0 = 1000 W/m2, and αp = 0.04

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Fig. 5

Variation of average heat transfer coefficient with Reynolds number for q0 = 1000 W/m2 and αp = 0.04

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Fig. 6

Local wall shear stress distribution for nanofluid water–Cu and Ga–Cu as Re = 500 and αp = 0.04

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Fig. 7

Tube wall temperature (a) and bulk temperature (b) distribution of nano liquid-metal fluid for Re = 250 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 8

Local heat transfer coefficient distribution (a) and average heat transfer coefficient (b) at tube wall for Re = 250 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 9

Local wall shear stress distribution (a) and average wall shear stress (b) at tube wall for Re = 250 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 10

Variation of pressure drop with nanoparticle volume fraction

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Fig. 11

Tube wall temperature (a) and bulk temperature (b) distribution of nano liquid-metal fluid for αp = 0.02 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 12

Local heat transfer coefficient distribution and variation of average heat transfer coefficient under different Reynolds numbers for αp = 0.02 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 13

Local wall shear stress distribution (a) and average wall shear stress (b) at tube wall for αp = 0.02 and q0 = 1000 W/m2

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Fig. 14

Average Nusselt number as a function of Reynolds number and nanoparticle volume fraction

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Fig. 15

Variation of pressure drop with Reynolds number

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Fig. 16

Variation of PEC with Reynolds number (a) and nanoparticle volume fraction (b)

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