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Research Papers: Heat and Mass Transfer

Experimental Evidence of the Thermal Cloak Based on the Path Design of the Heat Flux

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiao He

Key Laboratory of Advanced Ship
Materials and Mechanics,
College of Aerospace and
Civil Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China

Tianzhi Yang

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,
Shenyang Aerospace University,
Shenyang 110136, China

Linzhi Wu

Key Laboratory of Advanced Ship
Materials and Mechanics,
College of Aerospace and
Civil Engineering,
Harbin Engineering University,
Harbin 150001, China;
Center for Composite Materials,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: wulinzhi@hrbeu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 15, 2017; final manuscript received April 18, 2018; published online May 25, 2018. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 140(10), 102001 (May 25, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1685; doi: 10.1115/1.4040148 History: Received November 15, 2017; Revised April 18, 2018

We recently showed theoretically that the infinite singularity of the thermal cloak designed by transformation thermodynamics could be eliminated by a new method—the path design of the heat flux without any approximation. In this paper, we present the experimental evidence of such a new strategy of thermal cloak, that is, a truly singularity-free thermal cloak. We fabricate such a transient thermal cloak device without using extreme material parameters. The experimental results show fully controlled, transient cloaking behavior, which are perfectly consistent with the theoretical derivations and simulated results. Since one can flexibly design the path of heat flux in the cloak, it has the large degree-of-freedom to construct thermal cloaks with the specific distributions of material parameters. The new method provides a new blue print for the transient thermal protection of a specific target.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 5

(a) Blueprint of the sample preparation and (b) photograph of the fabricated sample based on path-design method

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Fig. 4

Standard deviation ratio of a clay homogeneous monolayer cloak (square), Pendry's cloak (triangle), and our sample (circle) at angular frequencies ω = 0, 1, 3, and 6 rad s−1. The source is on the left so that heat diffuses from left to right. The vertical lines are related to the position of the insulating layer and cloaks. The vertical axis gives the ratio of the deviation on a logarithmic scale, while the horizontal axis is for the temperature of the isotherms. The horizontal blue line is for the bare object, which is a hallmark of neutral effectiveness. The horizontal dashed blue line indicates the height of minimum of the standard deviation ratio among all the studied cloaks. Note that this is no longer the case at increasing frequencies, which explains the shift of the curves with frequency ω.

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Fig. 3

(a) Discretizing the invisible cloak into N homogeneous anisotropic layers, (b) each layer in (a) is substituted by two homogeneous isotropic layers A and B

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Fig. 2

Snapshots of the thermal distribution at different times. The first line and the second line represent the cloak made by Pendry's method and the cloak made by our method, respectively. Black lines are the heat flux lines.

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Fig. 1

An inhomogeneous and anisotropic cylindrical cloak with the inner radius a and the outer radius b

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Fig. 6

Snapshots of the thermal distribution of the fabricated thermal cloak at different times

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Fig. 7

Simulated snapshots of the thermal distribution of the thermal cloak at different times. Black lines and white lines are the isothermal lines and the heat flux lines, respectively.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the experimental and simulated results under the steady-state. Black lines and white lines are the isothermal lines and the heat flux lines, respectively.

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Fig. 9

Normalized temperature of the cloaked object versus time in the experimental case and in the simulated case

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