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Research Papers: Combustion and Reactive Flows

Numerical Study on Merging and Interaction of Jet Diffusion Flames

[+] Author and Article Information
T. C. Ho

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay,
Hong Kong, China
e-mail: tcho@ust.hk

S. C. Fu

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay,
Hong Kong, China
e-mail: mescfu@ust.hk

Christopher Y. H. Chao

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Hong Kong University of
Science and Technology
Clear Water Bay,
Hong Kong, China
e-mail: meyhchao@ust.hk

Sharad Gupta

IRESC,
Hong Kong, China
e-mail: sharad.gupta@irescglobal.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 15, 2017; final manuscript received May 11, 2018; published online June 18, 2018. Editor: Portonovo S. Ayyaswamy.

J. Heat Transfer 140(10), 101201 (Jun 18, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1471; doi: 10.1115/1.4040348 History: Received August 15, 2017; Revised May 11, 2018

A high velocity jet fire can cause catastrophic failure due to flame impingement or radiation. The scenario becomes more complicated when multiple jet fires exist following ignition of release from pressure relief valves (PRV) as the thermal effect not only distorts the individual jet flame but also changes the flame height and temperature profile and such kind of high velocity jet flames have not been studied in the past. Therefore, prediction of the flame shape including the merging and interaction of multiple jet fires is essential in risk analysis. In this paper, fire interaction of two high velocity (>10 m/s) jet fires is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Different radiation models are analyzed and validated by experimental data from the literature. Based on the simulation result, the merging of high velocity jet fires is divided into three stages. An empirical equation considering the fire interaction for the average flame height with different release velocities and separation distance is developed. The flame height increases dramatically when the separation distance decreases resulting in a shortage of oxygen. So, part of the methane is reacted in a higher height, which explains the change in the merging flame height and temperature.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of a two jet fires

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Fig. 2

Schematic of core zones and outer zone for single jet and double jet fires

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Fig. 3

Calculated flame heights for different (a) height of core zone (total height of both upper and lower core zones) and (b) width of domain

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Fig. 4

Grid analysis in core zones (a) flame height and (b) maximum flame diameter

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Fig. 5

(a) temperature profiles from different radiation models, (b) areas under temperature profiles, and (c) temperature at the middle point from different radiation models

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Fig. 6

Validation of the models by existing experimental data (a) single jet fire, (b) line fire, and (c) double line fires

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous flame height of a single jet fire

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Fig. 8

Average flame height of single fire under different release velocities

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Fig. 9

The average positional flame height along A-A' with different D (v = 50 m/s)

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Fig. 10

Location of flame tip against separation distance in different release velocities

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Fig. 11

Average flame heights with different release velocity and separation distance

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Fig. 12

Relationship between (H−Ho)/(Hmax−Ho) and separation distance

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Fig. 13

Methane fraction by weight at line B-B' for v = 50 m/s

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Fig. 14

Temperature profile at B−B' for v = 50 m/s (a) height and (b) normalized height z/Hx

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Fig. 15

Temperature profile at B−B' from different release velocities (a) height and (b) normalized height z/Hx

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