0
Technical Brief

Experimental Analysis of the Impact of Nanoinclusions and Surfactants on the Viscosity of Paraffin-Based Energy Storage Materials

[+] Author and Article Information
Rebecca Weigand, Kieran Hess

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Villanova University,
Villanova, PA 19085

Amy S. Fleischer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
California Polytechnic State University,
San Luis Obispo, CA 93407
e-mail: afleisch@calpoly.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received August 2, 2017; final manuscript received June 28, 2018; published online August 3, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Heat Transfer 140(11), 114502 (Aug 03, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1444; doi: 10.1115/1.4040781 History: Received August 02, 2017; Revised June 28, 2018

Phase change materials (PCMs) are commonly used in many applications, including the transient thermal management of electronics. For many systems, paraffin-based PCMs are used with suspended nanoinclusions to increase their effective thermal conductivity. The addition of these materials can have a positive impact on thermal conductivity, but can also increase the viscosity in the liquid phase. In this paper, the impact of different nanoinclusions and surfactants on the dynamic viscosity of a common paraffin wax PCM is quantified in order to determine their suitability for thermal energy storage applications. The effect of the nanoparticles on the viscosity is found to be a function of the nanoparticle type with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) yielding the greatest increase in viscosity. The addition of both nanoparticle and surfactant to the base PCM is found to affect the viscosity even when the loading levels of the nanoparticles or surfactant alone are not enough to affect the viscosity, thus the combination must be carefully considered in any heat transfer application.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Weinstein, R. D. , Kopec, T. C. , Fleischer, A. S. , D'Addio, E. , and Bessel, C. A. , 2008, “ The Experimental Exploration of Embedding Phase Change Materials With Graphite Nanofibers for the Thermal Management of Electronics,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 130(4), p. 042405. [CrossRef]
Elgafy, A. , and Lafdi, K. , 2005, “ Effect of Carbon Nanofiber Additives on Thermal Behavior of Phase Change Materials,” Carbon, 43(15), pp. 3067–74. [CrossRef]
Chintakrinda, K. , Weinstein, R. , and Fleischer, A. S. , 2011, “ A Direct Comparison of Three Different Material Enhancement Methods on the Transient Thermal Response of Paraffin Phase Change Material Exposed to High Heat Fluxes,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50(9), pp. 1639–1647. [CrossRef]
Warzoha, R. , Weigand, R. , and Fleischer, A. S. , 2015, “ Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties of a Paraffin Phase Change Material Embedded With Herringbone Style Graphite Nanofibers,” Appl. Energy, 137, pp. 716–725. [CrossRef]
Yu, Z. , Fang, X. , Fan, L. , Wang, X. , Xiao, Y. , Zeng, Y. , Xu, X. , Hu, Y. , and Cen, K. , 2013, “ Increased Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Paraffin Based Suspensions in the Presence of Carbon Nano-Additives of Various Shapes and Sizes,” Carbon, 53, pp. 277–285. [CrossRef]
Xu, T. , Li, Y. , Chen, J. , and Liu, J. , 2017, “ Preparation and Thermal Energy Storage Properties of LiNo3-KCL-NaNO3 Expanded Graphite Composite Phase Change Material,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 169, pp. 215–221. [CrossRef]
Srinivasan, S. , Diallo, M. S. , Saha, S. K. , Abass, O. A. , Sharma, A. , and Balasubramanian, G. , 2017, “ Effect of Temperature and Graphite Particle Fillers on Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Phase Change Material n-Eicosane,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 114, pp. 318–323. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J. , and Gao, J. Y. , 2009, “ Preparation and Thermophysical Properties of Nanoparticles in Paraffin Emulsion as Phase Change Material,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 36(5), pp. 467–470. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J. , and Gao, J. Y. , 2013, “ An Experimental Study on Melting Heat Transfer of Paraffin Dispersed With Al2O3 Nanoparticles in a Vertical Enclosure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 62, pp. 2–8. [CrossRef]
Dhaidan, N. S. , Khodadadi, J. M. , Al-Hattab, T. A. , and Al-Mashat, S. M. , 2013, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Melting NePCM Inside an Annular Container Under a Constant Heat Flus Including the Effect of Eccentricity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 67, pp. 523–534. [CrossRef]
Fan, L.-W. , Zhu, Z. , Zeng, Y. , Lu, Q. , and Yu, Z. , 2014, “ Heat Transfer During Melting of Graphene Based Composite Phase Change Materials Heated From below,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 79, pp. 94–104. [CrossRef]
Parameshwaran, R. , Deepak, K. , Saravanan, R. , and Kalaiselvam, S. , 2014, “ Preparation, Thermal Ad Rheological Properties of Hybrid Nanocomposite Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage,” Appl. Energy, 115, pp. 320–330. [CrossRef]
Motahar, S. , Alemrajabi, A. A. , and Khodabandeh, R. , 2017, “ Experimental Investigation on Heat Transfer Characteristics During Melting With Dispersed TiO2 Nanoparticles in a Rectangular Enclosure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 109, pp. 134–146. [CrossRef]
Freund, M. , Csikos, R. , Keszthelyi, S. , and Mozes, G. Y. , 1982, Paraffin Products: Properties, Technologies, Applications, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, p. 94.
The International Group, 2009, “ Technical Data Sheet, IGI-1230A,” The International Group, Inc., Torronto, ON, Canada.
Bessel, C. A. , Laubernds, K. , Rodriguez, N. M. , and Baker, R. T. K. , 2001, “ Graphite Nanofibers as an Electrode for Fuel Cell Applications,” J. Phys. Chem., 105, pp. 1115–1118. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Rheogram of base paraffin PCM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of base paraffin viscosity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Results of consecutive trial viscosities show that none of the materials are thixotropic. (a) Pure paraffin at 60 °C, (b) paraffin with 0.7 wt % HGNF at 60 °C, (c) paraffin with 0.1 wt % MWCNT at 60 °C, (d) paraffin with 0.1 wt % xGNP at 60 °C, and (e) 85% paraffin, 15% oleic acid with 0.2 wt % HGNF at 60 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Impact of HGNF nanoparticle addition on the viscosity of the base paraffin as a function of temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Impact of xGNP nanoparticle addition on the viscosity of the base paraffin at 60 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Impact of MWCNT nanoparticle addition on the viscosity of the base paraffin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Impact of type of particle—0.1 wt %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Impact of surfactant addition on the viscosity of the base paraffin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Impact of surfactant and nanoparticle addition on the viscosity of the base paraffin

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In