Research Papers: Evaporation, Boiling, and Condensation

Pool Boiling of Low-Global Warming Potential Replacements for R134a on a Reentrant Cavity Surface

[+] Author and Article Information
M. A. Kedzierski

Fellow ASME
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899
e-mail: MAK@NIST.GOV

L. Lin, D. Kang

National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF HEAT TRANSFER. Manuscript received November 27, 2017; final manuscript received June 28, 2018; published online August 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Heat Transfer 140(12), 121502 (Aug 24, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: HT-17-1709; doi: 10.1115/1.4040783 History: Received November 27, 2017; Revised June 28, 2018

This paper quantifies the pool boiling performance of R134a, R1234yf, R513A, and R450A on a flattened, horizontal reentrant cavity surface. The study showed that the boiling performance of R134a on the Turbo-ESP exceeded that of the replacement refrigerants for heat fluxes greater than 20 kW m−2. On average, the heat flux for R1234yf and R513A was 16% and 19% less than that for R134a, respectively, for R134a heat fluxes between 20 kW m−2 and 110 kW m−2. The heat flux for R450A was on average 57% less than that of R134a for heat fluxes between 30 kW m−2 and 110 kW m−2. A model was developed to predict both single-component and multicomponent pool boiling of the test refrigerants on the Turbo-ESP surface. The model accounts for viscosity effects on bubble population and uses the Fritz equation to account for increased vapor production with increasing superheat. Both loss of available superheat and mass transfer resistance effects were modeled for the refrigerant mixtures. For most heat fluxes, the model predicted the measured superheat to within ±0.31 K.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Maybach, W. , 1902, “ Cooling and Condensing Apparatus,” U.S. Patent No. 709416 A.
Bergles, A. E. , 1988, “ Enhancement of Convective Heat Transfer Newton's Legacy Pursued,” History of Heat Transfer, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, pp. 53–64.
Donaldson, B. , Nagengast, B. , and Meckler, G. , 1995, Heat and Cold: Mastering the Great Indoors: A Selective History, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, New York, p. 261.
Aerofin, 2017, “History,”Aerofin, Lynchburg, VA, accessed July 20, 2018, http://www.aerofin.com/about/history
Rogers, J. S. , 1961, Study of Low-Fin Tube 1929–1960, Wolverine Tube, Inc., Decatur, AL, Internal Report No. Neshan-1.
Locke, A. A. , 1930, “ Integral Finned Tubing and Method of Manufacturing the Same,” Lynchburg, VA, U.S. Patent No. 1,761,733. https://patents.google.com/patent/US1761733
Kedzierski, M. A. , 1999, “ Ralph L. Webb: A Pioneering Proselytizer for Enhanced Heat Transfer,” J. Enhanced Heat Transfer, 6(2–4), pp. 71–78. [CrossRef]
Webb, R. L. , 1972, “ Heat Transfer Surface Having a High Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient,” Trane US Inc., U.S. Patent No. 3,696,861. https://patents.google.com/patent/US3696861A/en
Montreal, P. , 1987, Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, United Nations, New York (1987 with subsequent amendments).
EU, 2014, “ Regulation (Eu) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases and Repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006,” Official Journal of the European Union, p. L 150/195. https://www.eea.europa.eu/policy-documents/regulation-eu-no-517-2014
UNEP, 2016, “ Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer,” United Nations Environment Programme, Kigali, Rwanda, accessed July 25, 2017, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CN/2016/CN.872.2016-Eng.pdf
Myhre, G. , Shindell, D. , Bréon, F.-M. , Collins, W. , Fuglestvedt, J. , Huang, J. , Koch, D. , Lamarque, J.-F. , Lee, D. , Mendoza, B. , Nakajima, T. , Robock, A. , Stephens, G. , Takemura, T. , and Zhang, H. , 2013, “ Anthropogenic and Natural Radiative Forcing Supplementary Material,” Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, T. F. Stocker , D. Qin , G.-K. Plattner , M. Tignor , S. K. Allen , J. Boschung , A. Nauels , Y. Xia , V. Bex and P. M. Midgley , eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg1/supplementary/WG1AR5_Ch08SM_FINAL.pdf
ASHRAE, 2016, “ Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, New York, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard No. 34-2016. https://www.ashrae.org/File%20Library/Technical%20Resources/Standards%20and%20Guidelines/Standards%20Addenda/34_2016_l_20180126.pdf
Park, K. J. , and Jung, D. , 2010, “ Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients of R1234yf on Plain and Low Fin Surfaces,” Int. J. Refrig., 33(3), pp. 553–557. [CrossRef]
Moreno, G. , Narumanchi, S. , and King, C. , 2013, “ Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of HFO-1234yf on Plain and Microporous-Enhanced Surfaces,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(11), p. 111014. [CrossRef]
Lee, Y. , Kang, D. G. , Kim, J. H. , and Jung, D. , 2014, “ Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients of HFO1234yf on Various Enhanced Surfaces,” Int. J. Refrig., 38, pp. 198–205. [CrossRef]
Gorgy, E. , and Eckels, S. , 2010, “ Average Heat Transfer Coefficient for Pool Boiling of R-134a and R-123 on Smooth and Enhanced Tubes (RP-1316),” HVACR Res., 16(5), pp. 657–676. [CrossRef]
Gorgy, E. , and Eckels, S. , 2012, “ Local Heat Transfer Coefficient for Pool Boiling of R-134a and R-123 on Smooth and Enhanced Tubes,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55, pp. 3021–3028. [CrossRef]
Gorgy, E. , 2016, “ Nucleate Boiling of Low-GWP Refrigerants on Highly Enhanced Tube Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 96, pp. 660–666. [CrossRef]
Kedzierski, M. A. , 2002, “ Use of Fluorescence to Measure the Lubricant Excess Surface Density During Pool Boiling,” Int. J. Refrig., 25(8), pp. 1110–1122. [CrossRef]
Kedzierski, M. A. , 2000, “ Enhancement of R123 Pool Boiling by the Addition of Hydrocarbons,” Int. J. Refrig., 23(2), pp. 89–100. [CrossRef]
Kedzierski, M. A. , Lin, L. , and., and Kang, D. Y. , 2017, “ Pool Boiling of Low GWP Replacements for R134a on a Reentrant Cavity Surface; Extensive Measurement and Analysis,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, Technical Note No. 1968. https://www.nist.gov/publications/pool-boiling-low-gwp-replacements-r134a-reentrant-cavity-surface-extensive-measurement
Kedzierski, M. A. , 1995, “ Calorimetric and Visual Measurements of R123 Pool Boiling on Four Enhanced Surfaces,” U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, Standard No. NISTIR 5732. https://www.nist.gov/publications/calorimetric-and-visual-measurements-r123-pool-boiling-four-enhanced-surfaces
Belsley, D. A. , Kuh, E. , and Welsch, R. E. , 1980, Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity, Wiley, New York.
Lemmon, E. W. , Huber, M. L. , and McLinden, M. O. , 2013, “ NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (REFPROP), Version 9.1,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO.
Wilson, E. E. , 1915, “ A Basis for Rational Design of Heat Transfer Apparatus,” Trans. ASME, 37, pp. 47–70.
Webb, R. L. , and Kim, N.-H. , 2005, Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., Taylor & Francis, New York.
Mikic, B. B. , and Rohsenow, W. M. , 1969, “ A New Correlation of Pool-Boiling Data Including the Effect of Heating Surface Characteristics,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 91(2), pp. 245–250. [CrossRef]
Kedzierski, M. A. , 2007, “ Effect of Refrigerant Oil Additive on R134a and R123 Boiling Heat Transfer Performance,” Int. J. Refrig., 30(1), pp. 144–154. [CrossRef]
Fritz, W. , 1935, “ Berechnung Des Maximalvolume Von Dampfblasen,” Physikalische Z., 36, pp. 379–388.
Hsu, Y. Y. , 1962, “ On the Size Range of Active Nucleation Cavities on a Heating Surface,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 84(3), pp. 207–216. [CrossRef]
Shock, R. A. W. , 1982, “ Boiling in Multicomponent Fluids,” Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 1, Hemisphere Publishing Corp., New York, pp. 281–386.
Schluender, E. U. , 1983, “ Heat Transfer in Nucleate Boiling of Mixtures,” Int. Chem. Eng., 23(4), pp. 589–599.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of test apparatus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boiling curves for R134a and the low-GWP refrigerants for the Turbo-ESP surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of boiling curves for R134a and R450A on the Turbo-ESP surface to Gorgy [19] measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Photograph of Turbo-ESP surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Oxygen-free high-conductivity copper flat test plate with Turbo-ESP surface and thermocouple coordinate system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of R134a heat flux on the Turbo-ESP surface to that for the low-GWP fluids at the same wall superheat

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of superheat for Turbo-ESP surface to that for a plain surface and an integral-fin surface at the same heat flux

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of pool boiling model for Turbo-ESP surface for single component refrigerants to present measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of pool boiling model for Turbo-ESP surface for multicomponent refrigerants to present measurements



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In